Sodium Chloride: Commonly Known as Salt

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Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is one of the most widely used additives in food industries as a preservative due to its antimicrobial effect. Sodium also enhances the flavour and palatability of food by increasing saltiness, reducing bitterness, enhancing sweetness and other congruent flavours (Liem et al, 2011). However, ingesting too much sodium causes the body to retain more fluid in the blood vessels, which puts an extra burden on the heart and blood vessels causing hypertension. One fifth of New Zealand adults are suffering from hypertension and is one of major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is an important health concern because CVD is the leading cause of death in New Zealand. A report by Asaria et al calculated that a modest 15% reduction in population sodium intake could prevent 8.5 million cardiovascular-related deaths worldwide over 10 years.
New Zealanders consume average of 9 grams of salt per day, which is more than the recommended amount by the New Zealand Ministry of Health 4-6 grams of salt per day. According to the New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB), key foods that contribute to the high sodium are breads and processed meats.

The food industry has been using various sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes to reduce sodium levels. Potassium chloride (KCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium sulphate (MgSo4) can be used to elicit a similar pure saltiness. The concentration which can be used in
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