Soil and General Term Landslides

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The term ‘landslide’ includes all varieties of mass movements of hill slopes and can be defined as the downward and outward movement of slope forming materials composed of rocks, soils, artificial fills or combination of all these materials along surfaces of separation by falling, sliding and flowing, either slowly or quickly from one place to another. Although the landslides are primarily associated with mountainous terrains, these can also occur in areas where an activity such as surface excavations for highways, buildings and open pit mines takes place.

Landslide is a general term for a wide variety of down slope movements of earth materials that result in the perceptible downward and outward movement of
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Effects of landslides

In hilly terrains of India, Himalayan Mountains, Western Ghats and northeastern part, landslides have been one of the major natural disasters that strike life and property almost perennially. These landslides, year after year, bring about untold misery to human settlements apart from causing devastating damages of transportation and communication network.

(i)Landslides cause property damage: Injury and death and adversely effect a variety of resources. For example, water supplies, fisheries, sewage disposal systems, forests, dams and roadways can be affected for year after a slide event.

(ii)The negative economic effects of landslides: It include the cost to repair structures, loss of property value, disruption of transportation routes, medical posts in the even of injury, and indirect costs such as lost timber and lost fish stocks.

(iii)Quantity and quality: Water availability, Quantity and quality can be affected by landslides. Geotechnical studies and engineering projects to assess and stabilize potentially dangerous sites can be costly. Large, infrequent landslides contribute less to personal and property losses than do the smaller, more frequent slides and debris torrents in populated areas.

Every year in India especially in mountainous regions landslides damage many houses, buildings, roads, railways, pipelines, agricultural land and crops and cause the
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