9-anthraldehyde and (carbethoxymethylene)triphenylphosphorane were reacted together using the Wittig reaction to produce E-3-(9-Anthryl)-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester. .100 g of 9-anthraldehyde and .180 g of (carbethoxymethylene)triphenylphosphorane were used. 9-anthraldehyde was a green powder while (carbethoxymethylene)triphenylphosphorane was a white powder. Both were added together into a 3.00 mL conical vial with a magnetic spin valve. The vial was inserted into a 120 C sand bath to melt the reagents. Once the reagents melted, they were stirred for 15 minutes (2:30 pm-2:45 pm). After stirring, the vial was removed to cool to room temperature. 3.00 mL of hexanes were added to the vial and the suspension was stirred. The solvent was removed
The functional groups are called aminos and carboxyls. The linkage type is by using a peptide bond. The primary function of protein is build and repairs the body.
(Q3:Purification) Product was purified via crystallization and using ice-cold water ensured product remain intact while impurities were washed into the filtrated liquid. The results gathered were measured against already scientifically established melting points of the product, the standard solutions provided, and retention factor (Rf) values to conclude the unknown nucleophile used in the beginning was 4-methoxyphenyl.
PCR permits the synthesis of millions of copies of a specific nucleotide sequence in a few hours. It can amplify the sequence, even when the targeted sequence makes up less than one part in a million of the total initial sample. Steps of the PCR cycle are shown in below figure.
The basic building blocks of proteins are amino acids, the biuret reaction tests for protein. A solution of sodium hydroxide is added to a sample then a few drops of copper sulphate solution, if positive – the solution will turn mauve. There are 20 different amino acids and they can be joined in any order. Therefore there can be many different functions. A protein consists of one or more polypeptide chains (a polypeptide chain being multiple amino acids joined together via condensation, producing a peptide bond). Different proteins have different shapes as the shapes are determined by the sequence of amino acids.
Primase uses RNA as primer instead of DNA because at the start of DNA replication, RNA Polymerase creates a short-term primer on the DNA template. DNA is used when the cell wants something more permanent and RNA is used because it is simply used for a temporary purpose, such as replicating DNA. RNA polymerase requires a template like DNA polymerase, but in contrast to DNA polymerase, the RNA does not need to come into contact with a primer of a previous nucleotide. After a temporary RNA primer series has been created on the DNA template strand, the RNA polymerase falls off and DNA polymerase can add onto the hydroxyl group of the RNA primer and start its synthesis from there. RNA is disconnected soon after DNA synthesis
Proteins are a perfect example. The 3D structure and folding determine the use of the protein, such as the protein becoming an enzyme to fuel cellular respiration. However, before folding can occur, amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, must be joined together through dehydration synthesis. In order for a protein to be used within an organism’s body, the polypeptide chain must first be built. Dehydration synthesis occurs by reacting the carboxyl group of one amino acid with an amine group in another amino acid. This can be pictured in Figure 1. The OH from the carboxyl group is removed, along with a Hydrogen from the amine functional group. This results in the byproduct of water, which is later used by the cell. The Carbon in the carboxyl group forms a bond with the Nitrogen in the amino group, which is called a peptide bond. The final product of this reaction is an H2O molecule, and the start of a polypeptide chain. The protein that was made through dehydration synthesis can now be used throughout the body for a variety of different processes. The protein made can be used for tissue and cell repair. A large portion of organs and bones are comprised of protein. Other ways that the protein are used is to be made into enzymes that control reactions in the body such as cellular respiration. The creation of a protein strand via dehydration synthesis is not exclusive to
PCR works by denaturing the double-stranded DNA and annealing the primers to the newly-made single-stranded DNA, leading to the extension/elongation of the DNA by a polymerase that attaches to the primer/DNA strand. The PCR reaction strums through a handful of temperature cycles to maximize each step and the amount of product.
2.2 Materials and Methods: Polyamino-ether was obtained from the collaborator Dr. Kaushal Rege lab in Arizona state University. All other chemicals were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). 2.2.1 Synthesis of the bioreducible modified-PAE: The obtained PAE polymer was synthesized by reacting neomycin with glycidyl ether at molar ratio of 1:2 as reported in detail by Rege et al. previously.
Introduction: In order to identify whether an amino acid is polar (hydrophilic) or non-polar (hydrophobic), the process of chromatography is used, which separates the amino acids and identifies them based on specific chemical traits given by the R-groups. The process is preformed by placing spots of the sample(s) on the origin of a matrix, or chromatography paper, letting it dry, then placing the edge of the paper with the samples on it into a solvent (in this lab, it was alcohol).
In modern society today, eating disorders is one of the most common problem that face people. The most common forms of eating disorders are obesity, Binge, Bulimia, Nervosa, and Anorexia Nervosa. Dynorphins are a very important type or category of opioid peptides. They are very important in managing and maintaining homeostasis through the controlling of appetite and circadian rhythms. Some studies have shown that high level of dynorphin-10 may cause an increase in appetite. Conduction new studies on dynorphin-10 will help chemists to understand the feeding process and may help them understand the design of new food-intake modulators. Because natural is available in nature, we can use the Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) approach in order
Campbell and Farrell define proteins as polymers of amino acids that have been covalently joined through peptide bonds to form amino acid chains (61). A short amino acid chain comprising of thirty amino acids forms a peptide, and a longer chain of amino acids forms a polypeptide or a protein. Each of the amino acids making up a protein, has a fundamental design that comprises of a central carbon or alpha carbon that is bonded to a hydrogen element, an amino grouping, a carboxyl grouping, and a unique side chain or the R-group (Campbell and Farrell 61).
The titration curve of the unknown exhibited many characteristics, such as equivalence points, pKa of ionizable groups, isoelectric point, and buffer regions, that are particularly distinct to lysine. For unclear reasons, the pH during the titration did not reach the pH for pure 0.2 M NaOH nor 0.2 M HCl and normal equivalence points expected at two extreme ends of the titration curves for all amino acids were not observed. The titration of a phosphate buffer showed that the buffer capacity is directly proportional to the molarity of the buffer. However, our results showed that although the initial pH of the phosphate buffer was less than the pKa value, the measured buffer capacity was higher towards acid than base. The accuracy of the pH meter and calibration process was questioned under assumptions that the pH of the prepared phosphate buffer was actually above pKa.
The first is to denature dsDNA through heating to ~96 °C. This separates the two strands of DNA. The exact temperature to be used can be calculated with Tm = 4oC x (no. of G & C) + 2oC x (no. of A & T). Tm is the melting point of the strands and to supply the number of G, C, A, & T ‘s the primer is used.