In this experiment, several analgesics were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and the composition of an unknown tablet was identified. We define chromatography as the separation of two or more compounds or ions by their molecular interactions by either a moving or a stationary phase.1 There are different types of chromatography: Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Gas Liquid Chromatography (GC), and Column Chromatography (CC). All of which there two phases:
In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the composition of various over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics: Anacin, Bufferin, Excedrin, and Tylenol. The TLC plates were first viewed under ultraviolet (UV) light and then treated with iodine vapor in order to visualize the spotting.
In general, coprocessing is carried out for one plastic and one brittle-deforming excipient in order to minimize the elastic energy stored during compression and to decrease capping or lamination of the tablet, in addition, this combination is reflected positively on the compressibility of the powder. Coprocessed excipient use in direct compression tablet manufacturing process combines the advantages of wet granulation with the fast processing of direct compression.
Antitussive drugs are one of the most extended formulations category in the world that use for supperessing cough and cold, for treating the symptoms of a cold or influenza and relief of cough(Allen and Popovich 2005)(Allen and Popovich 2005). Dextromethorphan (DXM).scheme 1.(o-3-methoxy- N-methylmorphinan) is a one of the older and popular antitussive drugs that used to treat the cold symptoms that effects centrally at the cough center to raise the threshold for coughing (Goodman 1990, Dale)(Goodman 1990, Dale)(Dale) DXM is also combined with other active ingredients like chloropheniramine and it could abuse or misuse for numbing and hallucinogenic such as LSD. (McFee, Mofenson, and Caraccio 2000, Mendelson 2001) (McFee, Mofenson, and Caraccio 2000, Mendelson 2001). therefore there is more concern about DXM determination in pharmaceutical dosage form. developing sensitive, simple, and rapid method for determination of DXM has been become an important target in control pharmaceutical dosage form.
Which brand of painkilling medicine dissolves the fastest and does flavor, coating, and color of the pill affect the dissolution time? If several different pain neutralizing pills are placed in stomach acid and timed in order to find out which pill dissolves first, then the most effective pill will be the first to dissolve. In order to test this, eight different types of pain neutralizing medicine were put into simulated stomach acid and timed. Normal strength, liquid gel capsules, and children's flavored pills were all tested. In order to accurately simulate stomach acid, vinegar, which has the same pH levels of stomach acid, was heated to thirty seven degrees Celsius and stirred constantly and evenly. The pills tested were Advil, Children's
Compounding is an important facet of pharmaceutics that allows the formulation of specific drugs for individual patients. The work done at compounding pharmacies permits the development of medicinal products for patients that cannot tolerate certain components from mass production pharmaceutical companies. These individuals may require uniquely compounded agents to be flavorless, preservative-free, dye-free, liquid, solid, or more. These specialty production facilities are necessary for therapy and an acceptable quality of life for individuals with specific needs. Recently, the patient-driven role of designer therapeutics that compounding pharmacies occupy was overshadowed when a manmade epidemic was produced a medical catastrophe when supposedly sterile materials were contaminated with infectious agents.1
The isolation of aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine from Excedrin utilized the differing acidities and polarities of the three compounds. Extraction involved separating the three components by reacting them with HCL and NaOH, while thin layer chromatography involved separating the isolated compounds on a TLC plate. The binder was the first component extracted; followed by aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine was extracted last since it is a neutral and polar compound. The entire process can be seen in figure 1. The most utilized methods of extraction were gravity filtration and vacuum filtration which are displayed in figures 3 and 4 respectively. These methods were utilized to separate compounds based upon their differing
The aim of present work was to develop and evaluate risperidone (BCS Class II drug from antipsychotic category) nanosuspension stabilized with combination of Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Pluronic® F-68 as stabilizers. Lyophilization as solidification method was accessed for its suitability with selective cryoprotectants (Trehalose dihydrate and sorbitol). Various process parameters affecting average particle size and PDI were optimized. Formulation was found to be stable at 5°C for 3 months. Cumulative drug release profile obtained shown developed nanosuspension formulation to be giving cumulative % release of ~50% in initial 10 hours whereas value for unprocessed drug was ~11% in same time frame. These findings suggest that developed
Nine solutions were spotted in total; including the three isolated compounds, pure standards and the original supernatant. The purified aspirin had a weight of 1.17 grams. This corresponded to a percent yield of 44.0% and a percent theoretical yield of 117%. The TLC plate yielded retention factor values of 0.765 for aspirin, 0.617 for acetaminophen and 0.274 for caffeine. The TLC plate showed that only the isolated acetaminophen was pure as there were no other spots visible in that column. The isolated caffeine and aspirin were not pure because spots corresponding to all three components were present in their columns. The impurity of aspirin was also indicated by the percent theoretical yield being over 100
Cleansing – the most common use of surfactants in cosmetics is for cleansing. This is because skin and hair obtain a large amount of dirt from the environment, which is known as solid particulates, and from hair follicles known as oily deposits, which stays there. Lipophilic substances (oil loving) attract the oily deposits. Surfactants are used to get rid of them. Through the use of aligning lipophilic and hydrophilic ends, it is able to take the lipids off the exterior.
Notwithstanding this, dosage forms or pharmaceutical kits/packages that embody a fixed dosage regime that do not involve “any professional decision-making have been accepted as patentable” (Abbvie, at para. 112]; CIPO).
Wordell also explained that sustained release tablets have two important advantages over other drugs, one “they are effective for a longer period of time” and “two they frequently cause fewer adverse reactions.” Since sustained release tablets are designed to release the drug slowly over time, crushing or damaging the “wax matrix” may cause the patient to “receive too much of the drug too soon” and the patient “may suffer increased adverse reactions” as explained by Wordell. The expected effect of the drug may also not be met and the symptoms may reoccur before the next schedule dose Wordell further expressed. Sustained released capsule “contains beads” that releases the drugs in the same process as that of sustained release tablets. While you may be able to open a sustained release capsule and mixing the “beads” which food or juice, you must be very carefully and ensure that the beads or not popped during mixing Wordell emphasized. This will also cause the patient to receive too much of the drug at a much faster rate and this will also cause very serious adverse
7. What is the reason for manufacturing a drug as an enteric-coated tablet? (2 points)
A diesel truck’s engine is often forced to run harder and hotter than other engines because it is constantly in use. As a result, the lubricant can be used up at a more frequent rate than in other engines. When making a determination on the frequency of lube and oil changes, it is always important to refer to the recommendations from the manufacturer.
The reason I have chosen synthetic oil as a lubricant for the F1 car is that it don’t contain wax then like Conventional oils. So this means that it flows effortlessly in cold weather so no loss of prime while the oil is cold. And also it’s highly resistant to viscosity breakdown. This means that the oil has the ability to flow easily in all temperature from the heat created by the friction or the weather and chemical contaminants. So is better low and high temperature viscosity perforce at an extremes temperature perfectly as it has a better viscosity index (VI). Synthetic oil gives a better engine wear protection since the engine parts are regularly in contact with each other at high speeds as they move. The reason I have chosen synthetic oil because in the extreme environment of your engine the components inside could wear and break down in the F1. So by using synthetic oil is the defensive layer between these components. While conventional oil breaks down their ability to stop the engine for wear is diminished.