Sources Of Pollution, Occurrence, And Concentrations

1255 Words Jul 15th, 2015 6 Pages
Sources of pollution, occurrence, and concentrations
The point pollution sources in this present report were the wastewaters from the animal lot and residential lagoon systems. The diffuse pollution sources were from upstream areas of the sampling points. The concentrations of detected PHCs in this study are summarized in Table 4. Four pharmaceutical compounds (ENRO, OTC, TYLO, and TC) and metabolite / impurity (EHTC) were detected out of seventy four target compounds in all samples. ENRO, TC and OTC are broad-spectrum antibiotics. ENRO, a fluoroquinolone inhibit bacterial DNA replication process through the DNA gyrase enzyme. It is used in livestock production to treat diseases. The tetracylines are used to inhibit bacterial cell growth. TYLO belongs in the macrolides therapeutic drug class and it has a broad spectrum activity especially against gram-positive organisms. The concentrations of the four PHCs and a metabolite / impurity were found in the concentration range of 17 ng/L to 18 µg/L. Dilutions from rainfall, the amount of PHCs discharged in the lagoon overflows and the frequency of wastewater discharged may affect the levels of PHCs at the study area. The LOQ values reported by authors (Lissemore et al., 2006; Watkinson et al., 2009; Kleywegt et al. 2011; Xu et al., 2015) on the quantification of pharmaceuticals vary because of the different sensitivities of analytical procedures. Therefore it is difficult to compare our experimental values with…
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