South America, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Nevada, California Mexico

1494 WordsMay 26, 20176 Pages
se that is endemic to the southwest United States (California, Arizona, Utah, Texas, Nevada, and New Mexico), Mexico, Central America, and South America [1]. Disease infection results from inhaling the spores from soil fungus Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii [1]. The two fungi are located in separate regional locations, however, studies have shown that they are relatively identical and manifest the disease in the same way. Calling home in arid, desert areas, Coccidioidomycosis spores are found in lower elevations, 4 inches or more under sandy soil. They are endemic in areas with less than 20 inches of rain per year [1]. The most common opportunity to become infected is when the soil is disrupted by construction, entertainment…show more content…
In January 1994, the 6.7 Northridge Earthquake in California disturbed the soil and as a result of the magnitude, aftershocks, and subsequent landslides, Coccidioidomycosis fungi became aerosolized and dispersed [5]. 203 cases were identified in Ventura County, but Coccidioidomycosis was not the original diagnosis [5]. Data on Coccidioidomycosis is limited due to varieties in state reporting, testing practices, and misunderstanding of the disease [1]. A general conclusion is that 10-50% of those living in endemic areas have been exposed to some form of the disease and each year, approximately 150,000 new cases will occur in the United States [1]. In 2010, Arizona and California were the two states with the highest incidence of Coccidioidomycosis, with 186 new cases per 100,000 population in Arizona and 11.5 new cases per 100,000 in California [1]. From 2000-2011, there were 25,217 hospitalizations for 15,747 patients in California [3]. Many patients were readmitted because they relapsed at least once after their medication prescription ended. This totaled over $2 billion in hospital bills [3]. Over the years, the highest communities at risk have been men, people over the age of 65, Hispanics, Filipinos, Native Americans, pregnant women, and those with Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:45 PM Comment [2]: How this happens Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:44 PM Comment [3]: Why this is a problem
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