South American Independence: Bourbon Policies, Enlightenment and Simon Bolivar

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Thesis: The policies instituted under the rule of the Bourbons heightened social tensions between the creoles and pennisulares, and when combined with enlightenment ideas from Europe led to South American Independence led by revolutionary leader Simon Bolivar.
I. Introduction: Social Hierarchy that laid the ground for revolution. A. Social hierarchy based on origin and blood.
1. Peninsulares, Creoles , and Mestizos .
B. Hierarchy system was very complex.
1. Hard for people to mobilize their social position, and led to social tensions.
II. Bourbon hands-on policies created and exposed problems in the colonial government and caused Creoles to resent the Bourbons.
A. Appointment of Viceroys.
1. Took positions from Creoles and
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1. Social and political ideas form these thinkers had heavy influence on thinking. 2. Montesquieu’s ideals were supported by Creoles.
B. Enlightenment ideas led to Creolism.
1. Creoles became aware of their power, and formulated their own political and social ideas.
C. Enlightenment was not a cause, but an important ingredient in the revolution.
V. Simon Bolivar rises during Enlightenment.
A. Early Influence by 17th and 18th Philosophy.
B. Bolivar’s critique of Bourbon Policy.
1. Jamica Letter.
C. Bolivars view on government.
1. Strong republic.
2. Published ideas in Manifesto.
D. Rise to power and liberation.
1. Battle of Caraboro 1821.
2. Armistice.
VI. Conclusion: South American Independence.
A. Due to variety of factors.
1. Bourbon policies.
2. Social Tensions.
3. Enlightenment ideas.
B. Bolivar led the revolution.
1. His views on government led the revolution.

South American Independence: Bourbon Policies, Enlightenment and Simon Bolivar.
There were several factors that led to the revolution of the northern South American Spanish colonies; most had to do with actions and polices established by the late Bourbon family. Some of these factors included: change in the way the economy functioned, change in the colonial government structure, the lack of colonial representation in the government, and the social structure that had been created to benefit those

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