Space Discovery Research Paper

Decent Essays
In space discovery history there have been many findings and observations. Through extensive space travel we have learned more about our universe than we did before. In the early and late part of the 60’s several scientific discoveries were made.

In an effort to locate other means of life in our solar system NASA designed a series of spacecrafts, called the Mariner, that was launched into flight towards Mercury,Venus and Mars. Ten of these spacecrafts were invented and constructed but only seven of them were successful. Though few failed the ones that succeeded sent back new images of the surface of these two planets. Mariner two was launched successfully on August 27, 1962, sending it on a 3-1/2-month flight to Venus. On the way it measured
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In addition to various field and particle sensors and detectors, the spacecraft had a television camera, which took 22 television pictures covering about 1% of the planet. Mariner five was originally built to be the backup for Mariner four to Mars, but was never needed for that purpose, it was refurbished and modified to go to Venus instead. It flew by Venus at a distance of 3,990 kilometers (2,480 miles), and with its more sensitive instruments than aboard Mariner 2, revealed new information about Venus' atmosphere, including its composition of 85-99% carbon dioxide. Mariners six and seven were identical teammates in a two-spacecraft mission to Mars. Launched 31 days apart on Atlas/Centaur rockets, the spacecraft arrived at their closest approach to Mars of 3,430 kilometers (2,130 miles) just four days apart. They transmitted to Earth a total of 143 pictures of Mars as they approached the planet and 55 close-up pictures as they flew past the equator and southern hemisphere. The images, covering about 20% of the planet, revealed a surface quite different from Earth's moon. They revealed cratered deserts, as well as…show more content…
Mariner ten was the seventh successful launch in the Mariner series, the first spacecraft to use the gravitational pull of one planet (Venus) to reach another (Mercury), and the first spacecraft mission to visit two planets. Mariner ten was the first (and as of 2003 the only) spacecraft to visit Mercury. The spacecraft flew by Mercury three times in a retrograde heliocentric orbit and returned images and data on the planet. The primary scientific objectives of the mission were to measure Mercury's environment, atmosphere, surface, and body characteristics and to make similar investigations of Venus. Secondary objectives were to perform experiments in the interplanetary medium and to obtain experience with a dual-planet gravity-assist mission. Due to flying off-course during launch on July 22, 1962, Mariner one was blown up by a range safety officer about 5 minutes into flight. Mariner three’s protective shield failed to eject after the spacecraft had passed through the atmosphere causing all of the instrument sensors to remain uncovered, and the added weight prevented the spacecraft from attaining its prescribed Mars trajectory. Mariner eight was launched on an Atlas-Centaur SLV-3C booster (AC-24). The main Centaur engine was ignited
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