They investigated how children develop their number sense through interactions with software. The students in this study worked in small groups of 5, all participating on the same iPad with each student taking turns.
In a quiet college classroom, participants were individually tested, with a seat positioned in view of a computer, and a seat on the side for the experimenter to sit. There were four tasks for the participants to complete, that were timed. The participants were told that if they were to make an error by naming the wrong color, to correct it and read the next color, as the experimenter would write how many errors
Students in second grade when comparing two containers of equal volume may consider a tall thin container having a capacity greater than that of a short wide container. Allowing students to use standard measuring tools to record the volume provides the context for accomodation of conservation of volume. Additionally, students may use concrete manipulatives to accommodate conservation of numbers when solving problems involving addition and subtraction with regrouping employing base ten blocks. Subsequently, students are guided in the assimilating a semiotic function as they transfer to the use of representative symbols in place of using concrete manipulatives. An activity where students use nonstandard units of measure, such as cut outs of their foot shape, to measure identical objects creates tension when students compare their findings and discover that they are not in agreement. This activity prepares students for asimilating and accomodating seriation using standard units of measure such as inches and centimeters. In fact, best practices in second grade math instruction always begin in the concrete and upon mastery of this schema assimilate and accommodate into the representational or semiotic. However, these schema may be developed across the curriculum. Second grade students are
The magnet board and dots allow the students to interpret problems as the total number of objects in different groups; for example, 5x7 is interpreted as 5 groups of 7 objects each. The math fact table, supplied to Peter, will help build connection between prior learning that is essential for the lesson; furthermore, repetition of concepts over the course of the day will be supplied to the student. For example, the skills practiced will be extended into the other courses throughout the day (i.e. english, science, etc.) ]
Pupil B task was to build a tower of 8 blocks from a larger set. He coordinated all number manes with the blocks but when asked how many have you got he replied 10. Baroody, 2009) highlighted B’s counting errors occur as counting one object in a set twice, as a result, gets an incorrect total. Similarly, McGuire, Kinzie and Berch (2012) believes that if B could correctly count using the one -to- one correspondence principle, he would have labeled each block with the correct number name. Furthermore, this highlighted that B could not keep track of objects is he has counted and of those, he has not counted(DCFS,2009). McGuire, Kinzie and Berch (2012) highlighted that this is a common difficulty that many pupils encounter as they learn to count.
Today we discussed the different ways we know numbers can be represented. Some great ideas were shared such as using drawings, people, numerals, objects and words. We then read a story called None the Number and recorded all the number words we could find. With our learning partners, we explored a circuit of physical activities and had a go at reading number words on the signs. Bouncing the ball ten times was a fun
In 2014, a study took place in a special education resource class at a rural elementary school (Flores, Hinton, & Schweck, 2014). Four elementary students were used in this study using the CRA sequence. Flores et al., 2014 used a multiple-probe design to show a functional relation. The assessment materials included twenty-five problems requiring multiplication with regrouping of two digit numbers. In the concrete procedure, the teacher modeled two problems using place value maps with base-ten blocks. The teacher also used guided practices and independent practice with the two problems, while working with the students to solve problems in a back and forth process (Flores et al., 2014). In the representational procedure, involved drawings using tallies, squares, and cubes. Ones were small tallies, tens were long tallies, and hundred were squares, and thousands were cubes. Teachers used modeling, guided practice, and independent practice to check for understanding. The abstract lesson procedures involved solving regrouping problems using the RENAME strategy: (1) Read the problem; (2) Examine the ones; (3) Note the ones (4) Address the tens, (5) Mark the tens; (6) Examine the hundreds and not the hundreds. The abstract stage involved only using numbers and the RENAME strategy. The teacher modeled two problems, guided three problems, and the
Multiplication by ten gives students opportunity to explore larger numbers, and can also be extended on(Reys et al. ch. 11.4). In addition, multiples of 10 give students the knowledge that all digits move left one place and an additional place hundreths. This concept can be used to introduce the decimal place which is also moving place each time something is multiplied by tens. Exposing students to a range of examples which displays patterns that occur when multiplying by tens and hundreths will generate meaning of digits moving place (Reys et al., ch. 11.4).
A work tray will have been compiled of the necessary resources for the Numeracy task. A student may be working on shape/colour recognition; the resources may contain a tracing card with a square, a circle and a triangle; a pencil and paper. Then the student is asked to trace the shape which may require hand over hand support. Other resources will also be used but using a different approach such as solid shapes in various colours, the student will be shown a shape and asked “what is the shape?” or more simply “it’s a .....” leaving time for the student to respond and complete the sentence. They may be asked to “take the yellow circle” from a choice of two shapes. Progress is then recorded and will aid the teacher to plan for future lessons depending on the progress made or whether the task is achievable and needs adapting to best suit the ability of the
One learner was working one to one with a staff member who was administering and taking date on discrete trials. The staff member would present stimuli, in this case it was a math equation, the learner made a response, and depending on whether or not the response was correct the learner would receive verbal praise or an error correction procedure was implemented. While observing this particular student it was
Forty participants watched a short film clip about student revolution. After, the participants answered some questions about it. Half of the participants were asked if the leader of four demonstrates was a male and the other half of the participants if the leader of twelve demonstrates was a male. One week later, both groups were asked new questions about the film but they did not have the chance to watch it again. One of the questions asked was about how many demonstrates were in the film, and the results were higher on the group that it was presupposed to have 12 demonstrators. It can be concluded that a wording of one question can alter the memory regarding an
The last two switches on the board were simply characterized as XXX. Before the experiment begins, the teacher is subjected to a test shock of 45 volts to understand to an extent what the learner will be enduring. The experimenter assures both participants that though the shocks may be extremely painful, they are not dangerous. The teacher is instructed by the experimenter to begin at 15 volts and increase the intensity of the shocks after every incorrect answer. The actor was trained to exhibit various indicators of distress based on the voltage level at which they were being “shocked”. These distress signals included groaning, screaming, refusal to continue, indication of a heart problem, and lastly silence. Milgram was able to watch the experiment out-of-sight from another room. Though he had few expectations in terms of what to expect from the teachers, he wasn’t sure that anyone would administer 450 volts. What Milgram found was that the majority (approximately 65% of the subjects) went as far as to administer the maximum 450 volts. Even after expressing perceptible anxiety and a reluctance to continue, none of the subjects terminated prior to administering the 300-volt shocks. When individuals began to exhibit hesitation, the experimenter was to insist that the teacher continue, as it was of the utmost importance that they reach the end of the experiment. Out of the 40 individuals who took part, 26 of them completed
The teacher prepared a lesson to do an assessment to the children about addition. This lesson was to show on the smart board different numbers with dots for counting. All children had the opportunity to participate in this activity, in which the teacher was able to observe and document what they know and what are some of their needs to help them. The teacher asked the children question such as Do you know which number represents these points? Can you represent it in the form of an addition? The child represented and wrote the addition 0 + 2 = 2.
The authors noted in their article that their past and current experiences have included children struggling with the concept of counting. When working with students, the authors
The experiment was carried out by 40 males between the ages of 20 and 50. They drew straws to be placed into two separate groups, “learners”or ”teachers”. The learners had to go into a separate and sit in an electric chair and answer and then answer a series of questions.The teachers were then instructed to ask the learner a series of questions and if they answer incorrectly they will receive an electric shock from the chair. For each question answered incorrectly the teacher raises