Spasmodic Dysfunction Definition

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Spasmodic Dysphonia Spasmodic dysphonia is a neurogenic voice disorder that causes spasms or movement of the vocal cords (Mehta, Goldman, & Orloff, 2001). There are three different types of spasmodic dysphonia: mixed spasmodic dysphonia, abductor spasmodic dysphonia, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This voice disorder is rare but new research is being done everyday to help find a cure. This paper will be divided between the forms of treatment, the different types of dysphonia, the symptoms for each type, psychological component, diagnosis, research, and the effects of aging.
Symptoms of Spasmodic Dysfunction Spasmodic dysfunction is characterized by the spasms of laryngeal muscles during active movement of the vocal cords (Mehta et
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With the continuation of research, it was found that the cause, though still unknown, was neurogenic. It is believed to originate in the basal ganglia, a well-known motor nucleus in the brain (Mehta et al., 2001). The basal ganglia consist of several clusters of nerve cells deep inside the brain. They help coordinate movements of the muscles throughout the body (NIDCD, 2014). It has also been found that there is a genetic component to some forms of dysphonia. Through research a possible gene, chromosome 9, has been identified to contribute to spasmodic dysphonia. Emerging research has lead scientists to believe that the problem occurs in the feedback loop between the organ, the voice box, and the brain. There is an over-control with spasms or tight muscle contractions. There is also evidence that this voice disorder may co occur with other movement disorders such as oromandibular dystonia (involuntary movements of the neck muscles), tardive dyskinesia (involuntary and repetitious movement of muscles of the face, arms, legs and body), torticollis (involuntary movement of the neck muscles), or tremor (rhythmic, quivering muscle movements). Spasmodic dysphonia is also said to affect anyone between the ages of 30 to 50 years of age (Levy, 2010). This disorder is more prevalent in women than in…show more content…
To find a cure there needs to be more of an understanding about the cause of spasmodic dysphonia. Although it was once thought to be psychological, with research it has been found to be neurological. Whether there is a genic component or whether it could be an environmental cause is still unknown. The different types of spasmodic dysphonia affect the sound of voice and the clarity of speech. There are also different types of treatment that help with management of symptoms. Some considerations for type of treatment would be age, side effects, and how long the treatment lasts. Although Botox is more preferred by patients, it is not the solution for
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