Specific Agoraphobias

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Agoraphobia is anxiety about being in (or anticipating) situations that might be difficult or in which help may not be available in the event of having a panic attack. The individual might feel like the situation is unsafe and that is when the panic sets in. These symptoms must be present for at least six months. The DSM states that this must occur in at least two of these places: 1) public transportation 2) being in open spaces 3) being in enclosed spaces 4) standing in line or in a crowd or 5) being outside the home alone. Agoraphobia can be diagnosed with or without panic disorder. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
“Social Anxiety Disorder is the extreme fear of being scrutinized and judged by others in social or performance situations:
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“A phobia is essentially a human being's irrational fear of something. It could be an object, an animal, a situation or an environment. These fears are persistent, intense, excessive and unrealistic, which is primarily why phobias are deemed irrational. A clinically phobic person's reaction to what scares him/her may seem extreme and the fright may not appear to be justified.” (Grenier et al., 2011) A specific phobia is known by a deep and persistent fear of an object or situation which becomes anxiety. The anticipations of the stimulus may make the symptoms arise. Many individuals who suffer with this disease will avoid the stimuli. They will take extra steps and precaution to have no contact. The main characteristics that the DSM-5 describes for this disorder includes “the individual suffering from a persistent fear that is either unreasonable or excessive, caused by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation, exposure to the stimulus usually results in an anxiety response, the sufferer recognizes that their fear is disproportionate to the perceived threat or danger, individuals take steps to avoid the object or situation they fear, and the phobic reaction, anticipation or avoidance interferes with the individual’s normal routine and relationships, or causes significant distress. At last, the phobia that the person has to be constant for a period of six months or longer.” (American Psychiatric Association,
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