Speech Organs

5147 Words Nov 8th, 2008 21 Pages
Phonetics (from the Greek: φωνή, phōnē, "sound, voice") is the subfield of linguistics that comprises the study of the physical sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (phones), and the processes of their physiological production, auditory reception, and neurophysiological perception.
Phonetics was studied as early as 2,500 years ago in ancient India, with Pāṇini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his 5th century BC treatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to Pāṇini's classification.
Contents
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• 1 Types of phonetics
• 2 Phonetics and phonology
• 3 See also
• 4 External links and references
• 5 Bibliography
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Still, some sort of 'sameness' holds in English but not universally in all other languages. For example, in Thai and Quechua, this difference of aspiration or non-aspiration differentiates phonemes and coincides with lexical contrasts dependent on minimal differences. In addition to the minimal meaningful sounds (the phonemes), phonology studies how sounds alternate, such as the /p/ in English, and topics such as syllable structure, stress, accent, and intonation.
The principles of phonological theory have also been applied to the analysis of sign languages, even though the sub-lexical units are not instantiated as speech sounds. The principles of phonological analysis can be applied independently of modality because they are designed to serve as general analytical tools, not language-specific ones. On the other hand, it must be noted, it is difficult to analyze phonologically a language one does not speak, and most phonological analysis takes place with recourse to phonetic information.
Contents
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• 1 Representing phonemes
• 2 Phoneme inventories o 2.1 Doing a phoneme inventory o 2.2 Phonemic distinctions or allophones o 2.3 Change of a phoneme inventory over time
• 3 Other topics in phonology
• 4 Development of the
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