Speech and Language Disorders Psychology Essay

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Speech And Language Disorders Psychology Essay
Young children can have unclear speech and mispronounce words, but as the children get older they learn how to use their tongue, lips and brain to work in harmony to say difficult and unfamiliar words. For most children speech difficulties pass with time but for some they find it hard so they repeat or pro-long sounds. This can be very hard for children so they can struggle to find ways to avoid using these sounds or words.
A phonological disorder is when a child has a problem with producing sound that is needed for the child to speak. Children with phonological disorder can have problems controlling their rate of speech and can fall behind when learning certain sounds. 2 to 3 year old
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"80% of children who stutter before the age of 5, will no longer stutter once they attend school for a year or so" according to (Packman & Onslow, 2002). Since most children will outgrow stuttering, it can be hard for parents and therapists to decide wither to go ahead with therapy or not. Therapy can be given if the sound and syllable repetition is frequent and if the child or parent is worried about it. Once the parent contacts the Health Service Executive and the Speech & Language Therapist, the therapist can give the parent advice and can offer individual therapy or group therapy. The sooner the child is referred for speech and language therapy the prospect for success is greater. While there is no guarantee that therapy will cure the stuttering, therapy can help to increase confidence and self-esteem and lessen the amount of stuttering and improve the child's lifestyle. Childhood stuttering can develop into a severe physical and psychological disability in adulthood. They have difficulty breathing during stuttering. They may have a laryngeal block where the airflow is cut off during stuttering and also they can develop secondary behaviours such as twitching and eye blinking. The psychological symptoms can include, avoidance of feared sounds, words and speaking situations and they may also substitute a words for another word.
According to Lavid stuttering is termed "developmental stuttering" to differentiate the condition from the occasional stuttering that
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