Spinoza’S Inferential Gap In The Ethics. A1: Spinoza’S

1500 WordsMay 6, 20176 Pages
Spinoza’s Inferential Gap in the Ethics A1: Spinoza’s Explicit Argument (Ip6c-Ip7): P1: Substance cannot be produced by anything else. (Ip6c) P1a: Substance cannot be produced by another substance. (Ip2-Ip3) P1b: Substance cannot be produced by another mode. (Ip4-Ip5) P2: Substance is self-caused. (Ip7p) P2a: Self-caused things necessarily involve existence. (Id1) C: So, existence belongs to the nature of substance. (Ip7p) Spinoza rejects 2 kinds of causation—(I) causation with different attributes, and (II) causation with the same attributes—to show that substance cannot be produced by anything else (Ip6c; p. 33-4). Causation must have: (i) intelligibility—i.e. the cause and effect are capable of being…show more content…
(Ip6c) P1a: Substance cannot be produced by another substance. (Ip2-Ip3) P1b: Substance cannot be produced by another mode. (Ip4-Ip5) IP: Substance is self-caused if and only if nothing can prevent it from existing. (Ip11sp2) IPa: There are two ways that something cannot exist: (A) contradictory essence; or (B) an external cause prevents its existence. (Ip11sp2) IPb: Substance does not have a contradictory essence. IPc: Substance does not have an external cause preventing its existence. P2: Substance is self-caused. (Ip7p) P2a: Self-caused things necessarily involves existence. (Id1) C: So, existence belongs to the nature of substance. (Ip7p) The implicit premise (IP) is that a substance is self-caused if and only if nothing is preventing it from existing by necessity. The implicit premise (and sub-premises) fill in the inferential gap, and helps the argument remain consistent with both (I) intelligibility and (II) individuation. In Ip11’s Second Proof, Spinoza offers a disjunctive statement that could help determine whether the essence of substance has existence—i.e. that it cannot be conceived as not existing, since existence is its essence (Ip7). To disprove that the statement that existence belongs to the nature of substance, either (Ipb) substance does not exist because it has a contradictory essence, or (Ipc) substance does not exist because an external cause is

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