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Spironucleus Mesnili Trophozoites

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1. Describe the characteristics of the Retortamonadida and Diplomonadida orders. Both Retortamonadida and Diplomonadida lack mitochondria as well as a Golgi apparatus, which are also known as dictyosomes. Retortamonadida and Diplomonadida also possess a recurrent flagella within a groove and can occupy low oxygen environments. Both orders of Retortamonadida and Diplomonadida are commonly found within humans.

2. Describe the morphology of Chilomastix mesnili trophozoites. In the cyst stage of Chilomastix mesnili, the cyst has a thick wall and is shaped similar to a pear or lemon. It is usually found in the stool. The cyst has a single nucleus located closer to the anterior end as well as other cytoplasmic organelles. During the trophozoite
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Describe the morphology of Spironucleus meleagridis trophozoites. Spironucleus meleagridis are elongated and contain four pairs of flagella. The nuclei are tapered and wrapped around one another. There is no sucking disc or median bodies, however the kinetosomes are anterior to and between the nuclei. There are also three pairs of axonemes. The life cycle is similar to Giardia, but the hosts are usually young birds. The mortality rate of young birds ranges anywhere from 7 to 80%. Birds that survive the infection develop immunity to the parasite, however, they suffer from stunted growth.

9. Describe the morphology of Trichomonas tenax trophozoites. Trichomonas tenax only has a trophic stage and takes on an oblong shape with four anterior free flagella. There is a fifth flagellum that curves backward along the undulating membrane. There is an accessory filament that runs along the undulating membrane. The costa arises from the kinetosome and the parabasal body lies near the nucleus. An axostyle tube is formed by a sheet of microtubules and has three parts. The anterior portion called the capitulum, the middle part called the trunk, and the posterior regions called the caudal tip. The pelta is made up of microtubules that supports the paraflagellar canal, which is a shallow depression from which all flagella emerge. The trophozoites also contain microbodies also known as the paracostal
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There is a fifth flagellum that curves backward along the undulating membrane. There is an accessory filament that runs along the undulating membrane. The costa arises from the kinetosome and the parabasal body lies near the nucleus. An axostyle tube is formed by a sheet of microtubules and has three parts. The anterior portion called the capitulum, the middle part called the trunk, and the posterior regions called the caudal tip. The pelta is made up of microtubules that supports the paraflagellar canal, which is a shallow depression from which all flagella emerge. The trophozoites also contain microbodies also known as the paracostal
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