Osteoporosis is marked by a decreased bone volume. Loss of spongy ("cancellous") bone is greater than
Osteoporosis is a medical condition when the bones become brittle and fragile from the loss of tissue. This results hormonal changes, deficiency of calcium, or vitamin D. The etiology of osteoporosis can be described as your bones being in a constant state of renewal. The bone is created and old bone is broken down. A younger body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone. Once this happens, your bone mass increases. When a person is in their early 20s, they reach their peak bone mass. The older a person gets, bone mass is lost faster than it is created. The chance to develop osteoporosis depends on how much bone mass you kept when you were younger. The higher your gain bone mass, the more bone you have for your body and the less likely
The skeletal system is made up of bones and joints. Bones are a dry dense tissue that is composed of calcium phosphorous and organic matter. The bones are protected and covered by a layer of fibrous connective tissue membrane called the periosteum (Brown, et al., 2015, p. 1547). There are two basic types of bone tissue: Compact Bone and Spongy Bone. Compact bones are dense smooth bones, while Spongy bones are composed of small needle-like pieces of bones and open space. Bones are then categorised according to the shape of the bone into four groups: long, short, flat and irregular. Long bones characteristically are typically longer then they are wide and generally have a shaft with heads at either ends e.g. the humerus. They are mainly compact bones. Short bones
As generally stated in the introduction, osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder that involves the strength and integrity of one’s bones. The WHO defines osteoporosis as, “a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low-bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, increased bone fragility, and its susceptibly to recurrent fractures.” 2 The most important factor to take into account when addressing osteoporosis is the mass of bone, also referred to as, bone mineral density (BMD). As bone mass begins to decline, typically in the older population, specifically postmenopausal women, individuals are at an increased risk for fractures.3 As a result of this serious condition, many people are affected by morbidity, mortality, and economic difficulty.1
An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Throughout a lifetime, old bone is removed (resorption) and new bone is added (formation) to the skeleton. During childhood and teenage years, new bone is added faster than old bone is removed. Consequently, bone become larger, heavier, and denser. Bone formation continues at a pace faster than resorption until peak bone mass, which is reached around age 30. After age 30, bone resorption slowly exceeds bone formation. In women, bone loss is most rapid in the first years after menopause but persists throughout the postmenopausal years. Based on year 2000 census data, it is estimated that 55% of people age 50 and older have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. The major risk
2. Endochondral Ossification. Most bones of the human skeleton are formed by endochondral ossification. During endochondral ossification, bone replaces a cartilaginous model of the bones. Chondrocytes (cartilage cells) lays down a cartilage model that is shaped like the future bones. As the cartilage model calcifies the chondrocytes die. Osteoblasts from the periosteum secrete the organic bone matrix that undergoes calcification. The result is an outer layer of compact bone called a bone collar which covers the diaphysis. Blood vessels bring osteoblasts into a region of the cartilage called the primary ossification center where they produce spongy bone. The spongy bone of the diaphysis is absorbed by Osteoclasts creating the
When a femur becomes osteoporotic, it is the outer layer of the bone around the epiphyses and diaphysis, which begins to thin. This is the compact bone. In the distal and proximal epiphyses there would also be a loss of the cancellous bone. This is where the spongy bone is. When a bone is osteoporotic, a person becomes more susceptible to suffering from a bone fracture. On an x-ray, an osteoporotic femur doesn’t look as dense as a normal femur x-ray. In some of them you can see the larger spaces that are made in the trabeculae of the bone. This is the part that has a spongy appearance. In a normal femur the spaces in the spongy bone are smaller and dense. In the osteoporotic bone, the spaces are larger, which makes the bone more fragile. It doesn’t have as strong of a structure as a normal bone would.
Generally, bone can be classified into two categories according to its structure, cortical (compact) and trabecular (cancellous or spongy) bone. Cortical bone is stiff, with 5–10% porosity, and it makes up approximately 80% of skeletal bone, including cuboidal bones, flat bones, and the ends of long bones. Cortical bone is much denser, stiffer, and stronger than trabecular bone. The average strength of a compact human bone was 105 MPa in a longitudinal compression test, and was 131 MPa in a transversal compression test. In the same experiment, the average longitudinal strength in tension was 53 MPa . In contrast, the porosity of trabecular bone is approximately 50–95%, which is higher than that of cortical bones. The surface area of the
Osteoporosis is when bones become weak or brittle, and have reduced mass. The bones in the human body are constantly renewing themselves, meaning, the old bone is replaced by new bone and then broken down. At a young age, the body makes new bone at a faster rate than it tears down old bone resulting in an increase of bone mass. However, at a older age, the body stops producing new bone and has to rely on the bone mass that was built up at a younger age.
Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of how strong bone becomes osteoporotic is an interesting process. The body is continuously trying to maintain a sense of homeostasis and keep every cell and organ within the body at a constant state of happiness. During the homeostatic process, cells of bone are continuously undergoing processes of formation and resorption. This all-inclusive progression of building up bone occurs throughout life and is the key in modifying bones during trauma or just natural growth (Van der Kamp, 2012). Bone cells that assist with formation of bone are called osteoclasts, and bone cells that assist with the resorption of bone are called osteoclasts.
Yadira Gregorio Bio 200A - 05 Osteoporosis Introduction: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that is most common in women than in men. To understand this disease is important for us to understand the structure, and the types functions which makeup all of our bones. The structure of a typical bone is as follows. Our body is composed of 206 bones which can be classified as long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. In this research we will be focusing in long bones, and irregular bones. An example of a long bone is our hips which is known as the femur. An example of an irregular bones is the vertebrae which gives us support. Before we continue with this research we need to understand the functions of our bones. There are seven
The Human Bone The human body is made up of various bones; in total a person can have up to 206 bones ones the person has reached the adulthood. The skeleton is made up of two different groups which are the axial and appendicular skeleton. Both contain different bones in the body. The axial protects other parts of the body and appendicular skeleton helps the body with motion. Bones can come in different sizes and shapes. Along there are some bones called long bones, some short bones, others are flat bones and last there are what people call the irregular bones. The long bones contain two ends and they are considered longer then wider in cases. The short bones are shaped similar to square shapes but not exactly some bones examples can be the
While reading Rule of the Bone by Russel Banks, you will notice different themes that are shown throughout the novel. After reading the novel I realized that the search for independence is the most important theme in this novel. People will have different explanations of what they think independence means. Independence is being able to complete tasks on your own. You do not need somebody there to hold your hand whenever you do something. Independence is not having your actions, opinions, etc. controlled by somebody else. How is the search for independence in Rule of the Bone considered the most important theme in the novel? Russel Banks answers this question with the events Chappie (Bone) encounters throughout his journey.
In the past decade, network television has been bombarded by crime shows attempting to make their mark on viewers. All of these programs—CSI, Lie to Me, Numb3rs, Law & Order—have the same general set up of a male lead with a hot-head who is complemented by his team of FBI agents. As a loyal viewer and fan of Bones, I often wonder what makes it stay afloat with so many shows out there like it. Could it be that Bones isn’t like any of the other crime shows? Through its crimes and unsolved murders, Bones helps its viewers make sense of the disastrous world around them. The world we live in is full of danger and unsolved crime, but after watching Dr. Brennan, her team of “squints” and Agent Booth solve even the most bizarre murders, the