"Sports Will Either Be A School Of Virtue Or A School Of

1254 WordsJan 2, 20176 Pages
"Sports will either be a school of virtue or a school of vice, and that 's why the epidemic of cheating in professional sports is, and ought to be, a huge cultural concern” (Landry, 2012, para. 1). Professional sports are littered with cheating scandals and as technology advances so will access to new and clever techniques. There are many ways to cheat in sports, such as fixing games, placing bets on teams, lying about your age, and the biggest one of them all, taking performance enhancing substances. Doping is a matter of great public concern, and equally as concerning, is doping procedures that go undetected because they have been manipulated to slip under the radar. Studies show that placebos have powerful effects on strength,…show more content…
On the day of the actual competition, one of the morphine teams, unknowingly received a saline solution instead (i.e. a placebo), while the other morphine team received naloxone, a chemical that blocks the effects of opioids. Most notably, the team that received morphine during training and then a saline injection on competition day, showed the greatest pain endurance. This included superior performance to one of the teams not given morphine during training but only given a placebo injection of saline on competition day, thus showing the added benefit of pharmacological preconditioning during training sessions. The team given morphine during training but naloxone on competition day did not show any greater pain endurance than the other teams, revealing that the placebo effect experienced by the superior team was opioid-based (Benedetti et al., 2007). These findings have profound ethical implications in sport where certain drugs, like morphine are banned during competition but not during training. The results of the experiment support the theory that “placebos reduce pain by encouraging the brain to produce more natural opiates than usual” (How to Cheat Without Cheating, 2007). Benedetti et al., (2007) claim that this method of morphine administration followed by a placebo on competition day created “an opioid-mediated increase of pain endurance and physical performance” (p.576), even though no illicit drug was administered. The
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