Stages and Prognosis of Breast Cancer

3785 Words15 Pages
Breast Cancer 3 Running Head: Stages and Prognosis of Breast Cancer Stages and Prognosis of Breast Cancer Abstract Breast cancer is one of the major causes of death in cancer patients all over the world. Tumor node- metastasis (TNM) is a standard staging system for breast cancer. TNM staging system also provides the basis for the prognosis for breast cancer. The prognosis for breast cancer is majorly based on two factors; tumor size and biological factors. However, these factors have been further divided into subdivisions and have been discussed. In this paper the stages of breast cancer have been discussed along with the prognosis of breast cancer in detail. Stages and Prognosis of Breast Cancer Introduction It has been found that nearly 1.3 million women are suffering from breast cancer all over the world. There are different stages of breast cancer starting from 0 to IV. Cancer staging systems are intended to provide information on prognosis and to guide clinicians in treatment planning (Greene, 2002)(1). Traditionally, breast cancer has been staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and is known as the Tumor node- metastasis (TNM) system. Developed in 1959, this system has been periodically updated to reflect new knowledge regarding the relationship between disease extent and prognosis, ensuring that the system maintains clinical relevance (Edge, 2009)(2). The various possible combinations of tumor, node, and metastasis status are divided into
Open Document