The cognitive developmental theory comes from the work and research done by Jean Piaget which we believe is an empiricist approach which goes hand and hand with Piaget’s constructive approach. Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. The constructive approach is viewed as children discovering all knowledge about the world through their own learning and knowledge. According to Piaget, children pass through these stages at different times in their lives and cannot skip a stage which causes them to be seen as invariant.
One aspect of cognition that differs in elite and less skilled athletes is an attentional focus. Numerous studies have demonstrated that during a performance, skilled players direct their attention on their movements’ outcomes ( an external focus of attention) whereas less skilled players orient their attention on their body movements ( an internal focus of attention). This differing role of attention in athletes is explained within the automatization thesis (Bernstein, 1996), according to which experts have highly automatic motor skills due to continuous practice, thus focusing on the movements’ outcomes promotes a more automatic control which leads to efficient movements and high performance. Conversely, the motor
As unalike the sports basketball and soccer may seem, these two sports are the two most similar sports the public currently plays. Soccer and basketball are two sports that each have their stars and national television coverage. They are arguably in the top 3 most popular sports for the youth and have high continuity rates for players that partake in them. While the ultimate goal in both sports is putting the goal in or through the net, how the players create these opportunities makes these sports team based and strategic. In both sports teamwork, where they perform, similarity of injuries, and the importance of footwork, group these two sports together more than any other combination of sports.
The Piaget's stage theory of cognitive development is also known as the stage theory. It introduces that, in the expansion of our thinking, we act through an organized and certain sequence of steps. However, the theory focuses not only on compassionate how the children obtain knowledge, but likewise on the discernment of the substance of intelligence. According to the Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, there are two stages in the thinking pattern of a 3-year old preschooler and 9-year-old student. They are the preoperational stage for the 2 to 7 year old and the concrete operations stage for the 9 year old. The preoperational stage (three years old preschooler), this is where a new child can intellectually perform and signify to the objects and issues with the quarrel or the images, and they can act. The concrete operations (nine year old student), where a child is at the stage and deliver the ability to maintain, reserve their thinking, and analyze the objects in conditions of their many parts. However, they can also assume logically and understand comparison, but only about the concrete events.
Through physical education and group activities the kids are learning to strengthen their coordination. Shooting baskets provided a variety of repeatable movements that will increase coordination, such as ball throwing and catching. Such physical skills will help children in athletic pursuits, dance and in everyday
Baseline session, no practice of skill prior to session, was first recorded to observe students’ ability before practice. Juggling practice consisted of fifteen and thirty minute daily practice sessions depending on learner’s daily schedule. Eight hours of practice were to be completed by end of motor learning experiment. Practice was conducted in one certain way to better show the learning evidence. Standing in the same room, facing the same way, closed doors and windows. After practice completion of one full hour, student waited fifteen minutes before conducting a performance session. Total of eight performance sessions were collected throughout experiment. Retention session was tested five days after eighth performance session to measure persistence of learning. Transfer session was also conducted to measure adaptability of skill to other versions of skill.
For the purpose of assessment, this paper will be based on a year 7 middle school class who are beginning a new unit of basketball. This paper will attempt to show how teachers can educate students to acquire new skills in basketball and various ways to assess development and adaptation (by students) to the sport. Basketball is a diverse sport, played across the globe, that captures a variety of skills, which participants try to attain. The main skills used in basketball are dribbling, shooting, passing, and defending, but many other developmental skills (which come under the umbrella of the main skills) can be acquired. By understanding the main skills needed to teach basketball on an autonomous
In her article, Michelle Voss explains that professional athletes have better-developed imaginations. Research showed that the excitable part of the mind in elite basketball players while watching their competitors was the same area that controlled their shooting hand. Voss explains that the basketball players subconsciously pictured themselves doing their opponents’ moves in order to produce an accurate prediction of the outcome. In doing this, researchers concluded that the players were able to predict free-throw outcome within 30 percent accuracy while expert viewers were only able to make predictions within 10 percent accuracy (par 5).
Have you ever wondered how the brain develops while we learn? Dr. Rita Smilkstein’s research on The Natural Human Learning Process was interesting. I now know the parts of the brain and how they work. I know now how we learn and how emotions have an impact on how we learn. As college students, we need to understand how our brains work and how emotions can help us learn successfully, since all college students should want to become successful people in their lives during college and throughout their lives.
This essay will compare and contrast three key theories of learning; Behaviourism, Cognitive Learning Theory and Constructivism.
While there are numerous avenues today in which youth coaches can get their training and instructional ideas for developing winning strategies, it is rare that these teachings encompass information about the children they will be teaching these strategies to. This paper will seek to help the youth sports coach better understand children’s learning and performance skills in relation to their given sport. Within the paper there will be several different topics discussed in order to help the coach see the overall picture of what motor behavior learning looks like through the eyes of a youth athlete. The topics incorporated are: 1) growth and development issues and the influence they may have on children’s motor skills; 2) cognitive factors influencing the children’s learning and performing of various motor skills; 3) children’s overall control of motor skills; and 4) children’s development of motor expertise. Throughout each section, I will provide suggestions on how the coach may tackle each of these topics when coming up with their practice and instructional plans.
There are many aspects to the game of basketball and physics can be applied to all of them. Although to be good at basketball it is not necessary to play it from a physics point of view. Basketball players become good by developing muscle memory for the actions that must be performed in the game of basketball from years of practice. Nevertheless knowing some of the physics in the game of basketball can help a good player be a better player. In this paper I will cover the three most important aspects of the game, shooting, dribbling and passing.
It is often said that “practice makes perfect”, but what kids participating in competitive sports find out is that “Perfect practice makes perfect” (Three quotes). Hard work pays off and repetition builds skills. Practice may not be everyone’s favorite part of a sport, but doing something over and over again will make it become an instinct. Regardless of the type of sport that is played, there are some basic fundamentals that are learned and then practiced repeatedly. With each practice, athletes can gain more confidence in their ability (Kuchenbecker 37). Repetitions enable the players to develop skills and become more confident that they can perform when the time comes rather than being worried about failure. The level of discipline and focus developed by these kids helps them throughout their lives in a wide variety of ways.
Cognitive and behavioral learning theories tend to dominate modern discussions of learning theories. Employed in both educational and clinical settings, both have important contributions to understanding how and why individuals learn. Is one approach statistically better than the other, or do they each have their own place where one approach may be more effective under specific circumstances? Each theory has supporters who claim the efficacy of their theory is superior. Comparison of the theories is necessary to determine if one is significantly better than the other, or even if one theory may be slightly more effective than the other. Determining if one competing theory
Learning is a multifaceted perception unique to each individual. In looking to address the intricacies of learning, there have been a multitude of learning theories established over the centuries. To this day new theories are developed and traditional theories continue to be developed and expanded upon. (Swinburne Online, 2016)