Stainless Steel Alloys Essay

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The design of new stainless steel alloys with novel physical properties is vital to the petroleum industry in order to develop technologies which will perform more efficiently at high temperatures and pressures. While stainless steels with the addition of nickel have mechanical and thermal properties which are desirable at high temperatures and pressures, the high cost of nickel is prohibitive towards development of new devices which can be used in harsh conditions, so discovering stainless steel alloys with similar properties with little to no nickel content with be ideal. Ferritic alloys (Fe-Cr) already have some applications in high temperatures in the presence of sulfur, but they generally have poor tensile properties. The addition of…show more content…
What we know The development of materials used in harsh conditions is a very active field of research. This is mainly due to the broad range of industrial applications and of large interest in the development of equipment for oil and gas industry. [1] In that respect, different stainless steels have been proposed in the last decades and they are nowadays used in industry. Though they are not as recognized as carbon steels, there is a steady growth that indicates the necessity to understand the atomistic details of its performance, its potential crystallographic phases and the changes of the elastic and corrosive properties for different alloying agents. The atomistic and microstructure knowledge is a decisive factor in the design of a specific alloy. This will provide us with the local understanding of the alloy and how the properties can be modified by the inclusion of other atoms. We can generally classify stainless steels based on the different crystalline structures which can be formed at different temperatures and under different pressures. [1-3] • Austenitic stainless steels (γ-phase) are face-centered cubic structures (FCC), mostly nickel based, which are quite weldable. They are used in a broad number of industries from chemical plants, food processing and diary equipment. Though in very large use, they are prone to weld metal hot cracking. These materials occupy almost 50% of the global production of stainless steel. • Martensitic
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