In all levels of sport, involvement there is a high incidence of injuries that are bound to occur. These injuries can range in severity, from simple cuts and bruises to season or even career ending injuries. In many cases, the injured athlete is initially assessed and diagnosed with whatever ailment they may have. Next, the athlete is treated for that injury whether it be surgery, physical therapy, or both and then is given time to physically recover from that injury. This execution of treatment is known as the biomedical model, which the majority of physicians in today’s practice use. This plan seems to be universal and effective in many cases. What many
Atkinson’s and Shiffrin’s (1968) multi-store model was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated. However, as a result of this research, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. Building on this research, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative model of short-term memory which they called working memory. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argued that the picture of short-term memory (STM) provided by the Multi-Store Model is far too simple. According to the Multi-Store Model, STM holds limited amounts of information for short periods of time with relatively little processing. It is
Although many strength and conditioning programs have been developed to help player strength their arms to reduce the risk of injury many players still get hurt. These strength and
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect that mental practice would have on learning a sequential task for the lower limb. This was a single case study regarding an individual with a hemiparesis from a stroke. The study took place in a research laboratory of a university-affiliated rehabilitation center. The participant was a 38-year-old man who had suffered a left hemorrhagic subcortical stroke four months prior to the experiment (Jackson, Doyon, Richards, & Malouin, 2004). The subject was required to practice a serial response time task with the lower limb in three distinct training phases over a period of five weeks: two weeks of physical practice, one week of combined physical and mental practice, and then two weeks of mental practice alone (Jackson et al., 2004). The main outcome measure included the Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ). The KVIQ includes a series of 10 gestures and is adapted for older patients and patients with motor deficits. In this assessment, the patients rate their ability to elicit mental images of the action on two 5-point scales (5 = high imagery; 1 = low imagery). One scale rates the clarity of the image, and the other rates the intensity at which they can feel themselves performing the movement. Utilizing physical practice alone, the patient’s average response time did improve during the first five days, but then failed to show further improvement during the remaining days of physical practice. The combination of mental and physical practice yielded additional improvement; whereas, the following two weeks of mental practice alone resulted in minimal improvement in performance (Jackson et al., 2004). The findings from this case-study showed that when mental and physical practices are combined,
Like the first article above, the purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of mental practice use on upper-extremity impairment and functional outcomes on stroke patients, but also to see if mental practice plus physical practice would yield better results. This study took place in a licensed university-affiliated rehabilitation hospital. The design of this experiment was a case study, which consisted of only four total participants. Participants were chosen randomly; three men and one woman with moderate upper-limb hemiparesis post-stroke. Two subjects received mental practice and constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), one subject received only mental practice, and one received only CIMT. The main outcomes measures were the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL). The WMFT is a validated test that measures time (15 tasks) or strength (2 tasks) in completing upper-extremity joint specific or multiple joint movements or functions. The MAL is an upper-extremity disability measure. It is a semi-structured interview during which participants are asked to rate how much and how well (6-point scale; range, 0 worst to 5 best) they use their more affected arm for 30 ADL items in the home environment over a specified period. The participant who received only mental practice showed slight
Studies show that the magnitude of GIRD and TROM deficits can change acutely following repetitive throwing exposure, such as after a baseball game(19, 30). Not only does this implicate soft tissue involvement in allowing for shifts of arcs of motion, it also indicates that dynamic stabilizers of the shoulder play an important role in prevention of injury as they safeguard the GIRD-affected shoulder from extremes of motion. Fatigue can thus predispose significantly to soft tissue injuries such as thrower’s SLAP tears and impingement(31). A reasonable assertion would be that shoulder overuse likely confounds any study in GIRD as a primary source of tissue injury. As such, training programs should not neglect rest and strengthening as part of the therapy regimen(20).
Constraint-Induced Physical Therapy is a specialized rehabilition approach used to improve motor ability and the functional use of a limb affected by brain injury or a stroke. After suffering a stroke, a person can lose the function of one of their limbs. These stroke survivors can get frustrated and learn to stop using affected limb and start relying on the unaffected limb. Constraint-Induced Physical Therapy tries to decrease the effects of learned non-use by forcing patients to use the affected side. CIMT uses techniques like placing a mitt on the patient’s unaffected functional hand and forcing them to perform tasks with their stroke-affected limb for a majority of the day. This therapy also has the patient perform repetitive movements to repair the brains pathways. CIMT is a deliberate practice that focuses on relearning previously acquired motor skills. Relearning motor skills is measured by acquisition, retention, and transfer of skills. Acquisition is the performance of a previously learned motor skill. To relearn a motor skill, the skill must be rehearsed repeatedly. The more time a patient devotes to a task the more opportunity they have to improve their movement
However, little is known regarding the performance of uninjured athletes participating in ACL injury prone sports vs. non-ACL injury prone sports. Participating in sports can facilitate preprogramed motor programs, which may predetermine functional asymmetries and could potentially skew results on Standard Functional Tests (find resources). The purpose of this study is to present any existing differences
This paper will explore the article Psychological Aspects of Sport-Injury Rehabilitation: A Developmental Perspective by Maureen R. Weiss. The article is presented from the Journal of Athletic Training. Throughout this paper there will be a summary of this particular article as well as a critic on the methods discussed in the article and if the information presented relates back to what was learned and talked about throughout this class. Also this article target specifically to athletic trainers and those who are used to working in sport rehabilitation setting.
Physical therapists working at these large hospitals throughout the Midwest where recruitment will occur will be formally trained how on how to perform MT so that therapists will be consistent within and between patients. Both groups will receive 1 hour of MT of the upper extremity 5 days a week for 4 weeks. In addition to this treatment, the physical therapist will also work with patients in both groups on limb activation for 1 hour 5 days a week for 4 weeks and provide the more traditional physical therapy given to stroke patients, such as doing exercises to improve strength in the upper and lower extremity on the affected side involving neuromuscular re-education, pre-walking functional activities, weight shifts in sitting or standing, or the maintenance of unassisted
However, the therapist here can referred the player to the physician and at the same time apply the initial treatment procedures as to ask him/her to reduce the level of activity 3-6 week, then return to normal activity (Boden et al., 2001), applying RICE, and educate him/her some gentle exercises that do not affect the injured area.by this way, the therapist will facilitate and improve the level of health care, avoid any complications may occur, enhance the treatment and shorten the time of returning to normal activity.
As a sport psychology consultant, there are several courses of actions that might help Matt deal with his shoulder injury. These courses of actions include goal setting, positive-self talk, imagery, and relaxation training. First of all, personal performance goals can reduce the time and length of shoulder healing during Matt’s recovery time. In addition to goal setting, self-talk will help Matt to rebuild his confidence, so he could learn to prevent negative thoughts that will hinder his ability to perform in competitions. Accordingly, Matt can also visualize himself weightlifting, so it can quicken his return to competitive lifting. Lastly, Matt can also relieve the pain and stress that’s associated with recovery process through relaxation training, which will allow him to become a better competitor during future weight lifting
People often relate the loss of arm mobility to stroke patients because it is so noticeable when a person cannot use one of their arms properly. Statistics show, “motor deficits are common following stroke. Approximately 43% to 69% of people suffering from a stroke have upper-extremity impairment, 1, 2 and 4 years after a stroke, 67% still experience non-use of the affected arm as a major problem” (Siebers et al., 389). In these cases, CIMT can be more beneficial than less invasive therapies. CIMT looks to force movement and use of the affected side of the body after a stroke in order to promote rehabilitation while limiting the unaffected limb. However, this type of therapy does not come easily as CIMT is a very rigorous therapy. In the article, Stroke patients ' and therapists ' opinions of constraint-induced movement therapy, it was stated this therapy is intense because the unaffected arm is restrained while the patient participates in about 6 hours
As it is already known, Baseball is one of the most popular sports in the United States. The “national pastime”, as it is sometimes referred to, this sport attracts hundreds of thousands of people every year. Whether they are a fan or not, most people are aware of the three fundamentals of the game: pitching the ball, hitting the ball and catching the ball. But the thing that a lot of these people may not realize is that it’s a lot more complex than that. Just like any other sport, every move in baseball requires the coordination of a lot of joints and