Case Study Kimberly Greenway Liberty University According to the course syllabus we were introduced to the techniques of psychological research. This course was able to provide an understanding of how research is done, and what methods we can use to do so. By having a clear understanding of research and techniques used, it allows us to communicate effectively in regards to ideas behind the research process. In this paper, I will use myself as the case study to examine exactly what I learned about research.
RUNNING HEAD: Statistics Overview Statistics Overview Jennifer Shanley BUS 308-Statistics for Managers Professor Wells November 1, 2014 Statistics Overview Statistics provides us with very useful tools and techniques that aide us in dealing with real world scenarios. I have been able to learn several useful concepts by studying statistics that can aide me in making rational and informed decisions that are supported by the analysis results. Statistics as a discipline is the application and development of various processes put in place to gather, interpret, and analyse the information. The quantification of biological, social, and scientific phenomenons, design and analysis of experiments and surveys, and application of
Methods used in psychological research are used to obtain quantitative or qualitative data. Quantitative data is more often than not derived from methods such as experiments and statistics analysing data using surveys, questionnaires and interviews. Qualitative data tends not to be aimed at finding exact measurements in its findings, but is more concerned with evidence collection and analysis through practices such as observation and ethnography (using observations through involvement in activities over a period of time) (Brownlow 2011).
The next step is to form a testable hypothesis, or educated guess. A hypothesis must phrased in a way that in which another person can test the same hypothesis to verify or discredit it. After the hypothesis is formed, the experimenter must choose and appropriate research study. For example, if a scientist want to do a study about the behaviors of a particular person, like in the case Phineas Gage and the psychological affects of the iron rod that shot through his head, than the scientist may want to conduct a case study. Once the research method is established and the study has been planned out, then it is time to conduct the experiment and collect the data. The final step is to analyze the data to see if it supports or rejects the hypothesis. If the results do not support the hypothesis, then one should revise their hypothesis. If the results do support the hypothesis, then the study should be replicated to validate this study. Sharing the results of the experiment with other members of the scientific community is also an important part is advancing one’s understanding of the particular
Value (x) x- mean (x-mean)2 2.2 -4.685 21.95 2.5 -4.385 19.23 2.7 -4.185 17.51 2.9 -3.985 15.88 3.1 -3.785 14.33 3.5 -3.385 11.46 4.1 -2.785 7.76 4.3 -2.585 6.68 4.8 -2.085 4.35 7.3 0.415 0.17 7.6 0.715 0.51 8.1 References Dunbar, G. (2005). Evaluating Research Methods in Psychology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Primary data are collected expressly for research. Observational studies, meaning studies with no dictated intervention, require the collection of new data if there is no adequate existing data for testing
Magenta Psychological Statistics Abstract This paper will review different styles of research design along with how different variables within research can be measured.
Handout 1–3 Methods of Research Research, systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge, is a central ingredient of the scientific method in psychology. It provides the key to understanding the degree to which hypotheses (and the theories behind them) are accurate. Just as we can apply different theories and hypotheses to explain the same phenomena, we can use a number of alternative methods to conduct research.
A person should consider I/O psychology as a science because of its use of scientific research and its practice and because of its use of descriptive and inferential statistics (Spector, 2012), “I/O psychologists do many different jobs in a wide variety of settings” (p. 6). One divides I/O settings into two areas of concern, which are scientific research and practice. The research area provides certain principles, which one applies in practice. The activity of practice involves using psychological principles for solving problems of the real-world. Scientific research and practice are both important in I/O psychology. I/O psychologist perform studies were the requirements of statistical methods are necessary for analysis of data. Statistical methods are used to perform studies are descriptive and inferential statistics. I/O psychologists use descriptive statistics for summarizing study results. I/O psychologists use inferential statistics for the purpose of interpreting the results of studies by using different statistical tests.
What Have I Learned About Research at an Introductory Level? As stated in our syllabus, research is essential to the science of psychology. This course was an introduction to the basic concepts and instruments needed to assess and conduct research. Through understanding the research process, as well as the ideas such as validity and reliability, we become better acute consumers and producers of research. I have also learned that research comes in many different tests and observation, but each method is just as important as the last one.
1. Discuss the need for scientific research in the field of psychology. How does psychological research obtain and use empirical evidence?
Synthesis At the beginning of this subterm, I had a limited understanding of the proper research methods used within psychology. Despite having previously completed several psychology courses, two being upper level courses, there was still much I needed to learn pertaining to psychology research methods. While this research class has been on only an introductory
One known research method is the Scientific Method which is a uniform way of creating observations, assembly data, establishing concepts, testing predictions, and understanding outcomes. These observations are made in order to observe and define behaviors. The first step to take in using a scientific method is to develop an issue or question. Next step is to perform a research and observation on the issue or question that was developed. Then a hypothesis needs to be formulated after these steps have been made.
Primary and secondary sources are ways in which data can be retrieved. As Serakan (2006) stated, “Primary data refer to information obtained by the researcher on the variables of interest for the specific purpose of the study”. Various evidence suggesting to what methods of primary research can be conducted and which are most effective for the previously mentioned problem description are stated in this chapter.