From the CER maps (Figure 9), it can be observed that in 2013 ISMR the entire region had witnessed high CER values while other years were partially cover by cloud drops of different radii. The high rainfall intensity during 2013 ISMR could be the manifestation of the high CER values observed during that year compared to the other years (Figure 12). However, the low CER values in the other years can be seen in conjugation with high aerosol loading during that period. Similar trend is also observed in LWP plots for the study area during 2012-15 ISMR (Fig 13). It is evident from the figure 9 that LWP varies from low to high values over the region while, it is more homogeneous in 2014 and 2015 ISMR. The OLR was considerably
could have improved in this extended abstract. On several occasions, they used abbreviations without definitions. Some of these included “AMS”, “AUG”, “NCDC” and “NWS”. Though these abbreviations would have been common knowledge in the meteorology community, they should have still been defined with their first use. Another off-putting tendency was that the authors referred to Changnon by his first name, which was especially strange since they later referred to him by his last name. Furthermore, there were what appeared to be a few typographical errors in the abstract. For example, in Figures 4, 6, and 7, the nautical mile unit is abbreviated as “nim” instead of “nmi”. Additionally, the tense was not constant in the first paragraph. These changes would have been relative easy for the authors to
Paleoclimatology is the scientific study of Earth’s past climate using indirect data (“Paleoclimatology”, 2015). Since the Industrial Revolution studying climate archives is important because anthropogenic effects have become a prominent factor in climatic variation and they allow scientist to get an idea of past climatic variation in order to predict future climatic trends (Redinger, 2006). The indirect indicators that are used in climate archives are known as climate proxies (Ruddiman, 2013). There are 4 main climatic archives which are ice, trees, corals and sediments however this paper will take an in depth look at ice and corals. The period of interest is the Holocene, which is 10000 years ago when both of these
Climate and topography are two very important factors that may influence industries profitability and productivity. Is important for business leaders to recognize how climate and topography factors impacts different industries. Recognizing climate and topography could be of assistance for businesses venturing into the global business environment arena. Climate and topography are factors of huge importance when determining location and strategic planning. One of the industries most affected by climate and topography is the transportation industry.
No storm is experienced the same. Seeing a storm on the horizon has the power to stir up gripping memories, introspective thoughts, and convoluted emotions. The poem “Storm Warnings”, by Adrienne Rich, applies a predictable structure paired with flowing syntax, and ambiguous diction- speaking both of weather and emotions- to illustrate that one cannot avoid the tribulations of life, embodied as the approaching storm, but instead prepare for their arrival.
“Climate of Complete Certainty”, is an article written by Bret Stephens in which he attempts to convince his readers that science should not be treated with certitude. Stephens begins his article with an epigraph, a quote from the poet Czeslaw Milosz, in which Milosz states that those who declare that they are 100 percent right are not to be trusted. Stephens writes the article during a time when the United States is focused on only one thing: the 2017 presidential election. He begins to illustrate the distrust by providing evidence which criticizes Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign manager, who had absolute confidence in the arithmetic behind Clinton’s poll position. The manager failed to listen to those around him, and Stephens emphasizes
Authors use a variety of literary techniques and motifs to engage their readers and at times to create an environment of intrigue. These techniques enhance and broaden the reading experience, and allows the reader create a mindset upon which the story unfolds. Gabriel García Márquez utilizes the motif of weather in the novella Chronicle of a Death Foretold to symbolize the other characters’ beliefs on if Santiago Nasar is guilty or innocent of the crime Angela Vicario accuses him of. When recalling the day of the tragic event, there does not seem to be one definite answer. “No one was certain if he was referring to the state of the weather. Many people coincided in recalling that it was a radiant morning with a sea breeze coming in through
Currently, the development of spotter networks and conversion radar are use for identification of tornadoes (Coleman et al. 2011). In developed countries, the use of weather radars have become the primary method for the identification of tornadoes. The Doppler weather radar is used in the United States, this system takes measurements of velocity and the radial direction of the storm (Coleman et al. 2011). New technology development has lead to forecasts of tornadoes before they have made contact with the ground.
Climate change has been a topic of concern in many aspects of natural resource management in regards to ecological impacts from the effects of rapidly increasing air temperatures. In this paper we will look at those effects specifically on cold-water fishes within the Southern Rocky Mountains, mainly from Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico. The species most vulnerable to climate change are those that require cold and clean water conditions such as whitefish, grayling, char, trout, and salmon (Williams et al. 2015). The two main properties that are critical for fish survival are warm temperature and precipitation in regards to flow. The air temperatures within the Southern Rocky Mountains have increased faster than other
Microplastic is used in so many types of beauty products all over the world. Lots of Microplastic gets washed down the sink and into the ocean. People don't think of this because of the mental thought 'out of sight out of mind'. But Microplastic is causing many problems to many oceans and great lakes. This will affect the aquatic food chain from the tiniest plankton to us humans.
I am writing to recommend Elizabeth Zane for an internship. She was my student in Dynamic Meteorology Class in the last semester and she performed satisfyingly in the class.
Elnino is a warming cycle in the water that had been warming up every year. Every year the temperature has come to increase. This is very dangerous if the water gets too hot something can happen to the crops air and destroy everything in society if it becomes hotter. For now in 2017 the water cold increase in hurricane season . Thats is not good because it could damage our world even more , by creating more hurricanes. Heer are many topics on Elńino What is El´nino:” El Nino is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean with a global impact on weather patterns. The cycle begins when warm water in the western tropical Pacific Ocean shifts eastward along the equator toward the coast of South America.”(Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
I believe that the meteorologist should win the case. The meteorologist correctly did his/her job by predicting a 20% chance of rain, while this does mean that the probability of experiencing rainfall is slight, there is still a chance that it could happen. Researching further, I discovered that predicting the weather forecast is a lot harder than it seems. For starters, meteorologists rely on earlier weather patterns of the week to conclude the forecast for the current day. Typically, they come close to the forecast with their estimate, but by no means is this prediction completely accurate. Another interesting fact, it’s more difficult to forecast rainfall than it is the temperature. This is especially true for the region of Florida because
Climate change will affect the regional ETref trend. To explore quantify the effects of climatic factors on ETref, sensitivity coefficients for mean air temperature (S(TA)), relative humidity (S(RH)), wind speed (S(WS)), and solar radiation (S(SR)) in each time period of HRB are shown were listed in Table 3. The results revealed that ETref was most sensitive to change of RH, followed by SR, TA and WS. Meanwhile, the value of sensitivity coefficient of WS was lower than that of the other climatic factors, which suggests that ETref had low sensitivity to change of WS. For the entire HRB, the negative sensitivity coefficient was detected for RH that was negatively correlated to the ETref , while the positive values were identified for TA,