Stem Cells And Its Effects On Society

909 WordsNov 19, 20154 Pages
Stem cells are unspecialized cell that can both reproduce itself indefinitely and, under proper conditions, differentiate into specialized cells of one or more types. (Reece, Jane B., and Lisa A. Urry, 2011.) The term “stem cells” were first seen in scientific literature in 1868, a German biologist Ernst Haeckel used this term to describe the fertilized egg that becomes an organism. On February 2, 1963 the firs piece of evidence of blood stem cells seem, Ernest McCulloch and James Till conducted experiments on the bone marrow of mine and observed that different blood cells come from a special class of cells. In 1981, pluripotent stem cells are obtained from embryos of mice and are the first embryonic stem cells ever to be isolated. In 1989, Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies created mice which are missing specific genes. They created the mice using embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination. In 2007, they were recognized by the Nobel Assembly because their experiment proved to be an irreplaceable piece of evidence to understand how various human disease such as diabetes and cancer develop. On November 6, 1998 the first batch of embryonic stem cells that originated from early embryos. Then eleven years later, President Obama signed an executive order to repeal some restrictions on human embryonic stem cells research funds. On July 4, 2009, the National Institutes of Health had to create new guidelines on federal funding for stem research. (“History of
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