Stereochemistry Post Lab Report. Reference: Experimental

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Stereochemistry Post Lab Report
Reference: Experimental Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale and Microscale Approach, 6th ed., by Gilbert and Martin, Chapter 7
The main purpose of this experiment was to study the mechanism of the isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate as well as to explore the different properties of enantiomers using (R) and (S) Carvone oils, such as polarimetry and odor. A percent yield was calculated based upon the original amount of dimethyl maleate added to the reaction, and the melting point was also be taken to determine the purity of the final product. Stereoisomers are isomers that have the same molecular formula and same connectivity but the spatial arrangements of those atoms are
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Racemic mixtures are optically inactive because the two compounds will rotate in opposite directions with the same magnitude which will cancel out any net optical activity. This experiment focuses on the enantiomers of (R) and (S) Carvone. The rotation of plane polarized light will be measured using a polarimeter. When light is shone through the polarizer filter, it’ll go through the sample which will cause the light to rotate until it hits the analyzer. The analyzer will give the magnitude, or the degrees that the light was rotated, with either a positive sign indicating clockwise rotation, or a negative sign indicating a counterclockwise rotation. Compounds that rotate plane polarized light in a clockwise direction are known as dextrorotatory compounds whereas compounds that rotate in a counterclockwise direction are known as levorotatory compounds.
Diastereomers are isomers that are not mirror images of each other. Diastereomers have different physical and chemical properties regardless of their environment, these properties often are similar. An example of a pair of diastereomers is the geometric isomers: the cis and trans orientations of a molecule. This experiment focuses on the geometric isomers dimethyl maleate and dimethyl fumarate. A chemical bond can be broken with heat, light, or with chemical. The experiment is designed to determine which method of breaking bonds drives the isomerization of
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