Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century is a monograph written by Christian Caryl, a

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Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century is a monograph written by Christian Caryl, a contributing editor at Foreign Policy magazine and a senior fellow of the Center for International Studies at MIT, which attempts to theorize the emergence of using revolutionary twin forces-religion and markets in 1979 and their radical alteration of the international economy in the 21st century. Caryl’s study covers five case studies from the root of 1979 and how strange rebels served as counterrevolutionary protagonist leaders by using old ideas and making them new and rebellious. Deng Xiaoping initiated the reforms that favored a pragmatic economic development in China; Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan after its Communist allies faced…show more content…
However, in the 1940s saw the rise of Mohammed Mossadeq, the reformist prime minister who came to power through popular elections. Mossadeq mixed, “Moderate socialism and anticolonial nationalism into program with broad electoral appeal”(p.42). He wanted to be less dependent on Great Britain because Britain controls oil due to colonial relationship. Also, he wants state ownership by using socialist policies to bring profit to state instead of Britain. After the fall of Mossadeq, the Americans and the British agreed to share equitable revenue from the sale of Iranian oil with the Iranian government.

The shah’s authorization instinct coexisted with his zeal to modernize Iran. Before the Iranian revolution, he was praised for modernizing Iran because he borrowed the Left’s ideas of social justice and Equality to create his vision. Furthermore, he believed in planning rather than markets. In 1963, he launched the white revolution, a plan to re engineer Iranian society. Caryl tells us, the white revolution included,” a national literacy campaign, suffrage for women, nationalized forests, pasturelands, and water resources”(p.43) . Moreover, the white revolution promoted mixed economy by privatizing state-owned enterprises. American and British liked the shah because he privileges state owned enterprises. He wants oil control to be private, but still get profit from its production. There were many people

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