François Guizot was a French historian during the 19th century, known as a powerful person in French politics. He presented one of the first comprehensive stories of Europe, by highlighting pluralism, which is a theory that characterize shared values, cooperation and harmony, also by highlighting antagonism, which is defined as a hostile opposition in a conflict or principle. François Guizot used these two terms as the key factors of the development of the continent of Europe. This essay is going to discuss two examples that will show the strengths and weaknesses of the pluralism and antagonism of Guizot’s thesis. The first example is the history of democracy in Greece, and how other organizations in Europe took after the success of the system. The second example is the regime Fascism, and how it has affected European countries.
Democracy began to emerge in Greece during the archaic (800-500) and classic (500-323) period, and it has expanded through the country over time . Greeks came up with the idea of democracy through discussions among citizens and with the majority voting; this was called direct democracy as everyone could debate and vote in one place to determine new policy for the country. During this period, only men were allowed to vote and give their opinions, others were not allowed to participate in government’s decisions . However, over time, the democratic government in Greece changed to be more open for every citizen. The poor, men and women, had the same rights, and equal share of power.
Democratic values can be seen through many different situations, such as when people had the same rights to engage meaningfully in an open discussion or debate, make free decision without the fear of being arrested, and have the right to participate through voting for the government. In the Ancient Greece, democratic values were important as people believed in “equality before the law”, which explains that they wanted to share their culture, their values and freedom with the same power. Democracy began to rise in the city of Athens, through accomplishing new principles that gave the right to speak, the just and equal order. The people in Greece, whether they had different cultures, still had mutual respect,