Dunning’s OLI paradigm (1976) is used to support firms to locate its production in countries that are financially beneficial for them. According to Dunning, “the paradigm offers a holistic framework to take in consideration all of the important factors that influence the decision of a MNE.” (Stefanović, 2008, p.241) FDI is determined through the composition of the three powerful advantages; ownership, location and internationalisation as shown in figure 1. The thesis is to assess, ‘why go multinational?’, ‘how to choose the best location?’ and ‘what actions have to be taken to enter a foreign market?’
Peng et al. (2008) articulates a framework in which firm resources and capabilities are viewed as one of three antecedents of a firm’s international business strategy (the other two being industry based competition and institutional conditions and transitions). Thus, the current literature sheds light only on how the capabilities of MNEs enable them to formulate appropriate strategic choices that match their resources with opportunities in their external, that is, their global, environment. However, mechanisms that ensure successful implementation of the chosen strategies remain unclear. While we assume that MNEs should be able to establish appropriate structures to match their strategies, research has shown that there is a lot of incongruence between MNE strategy and structure (Duysters and Hagedoorn 2001).
International business is a term used to collectively describe all commercial transactions that take place between two or more nations. A multinational enterprise (MNE) is a company that has a worldwide approach to markets and production or one with operations in more than a country.
MNC’s/TNC’s are companies that locate their factories in various places throughout the world. This gives countries more jobs, access to the global market, cheap manufacturing and large profits.
Due to the markets in developed country is fairly saturated, the multinational companies（MNCs）have started to turn their attention to the emerging markets. Investing today for the future growth is the key. As stated by Reem Heakal, an EME provides an outlet for MNCs to expand by serving as a new factory, or a new subsidiary, or a new R&D or service center, or new sources of income. However, as the EMEs are in transition, so relatively unstable. It will appear in regulation change, government’s intervention, change in government, non-stable floatation in the country’s exchange rate, or even the collapse of the capital market. These political and economic risks definitely cause serious problem or crisis for MNCs, which might turn the investments from positive revenue to be negative. But the bigger the risk, the bigger the potential return, therefore, the emerging markets have become the
There are many theories given by different group of researchers about the existence of multinational enterprises or MNE's. According to John Cantwell, it was in the 1970's and 1980's that many theories on MNE's were proposed. These theories were either general theories of MNE's which were called the main institution for international production or the theories on foreign direct investment, the means by which international production is done ( Pitelis, Christos N. and Sugden, Roger, The nature of the Transnational firm, Pg 10). Amongst the most famous are the Hymer's theory of international production, the internalization theory put forward by Buckley and Casson, Dunning's Eclectic Paradigm, and the evolutionary theory
The main argument for organizations to become multination is to operate their businesses in different countries so that they can diversify their market beyond the national boundary. Multinational presence will enable the firms to operate their business activities in different countries for acquiring benefits regarding business and technical efficiency (Collins, 2013). This will reduce the cost of the product by obtaining cheap labor, tax advantage, large and untapped market share and technical advancement. For instance, Toyota, a car manufacturing multinational company, operates its different
To be qualified as a multinational company (MNC), two criterions need to be fulfilled. Firstly, it needs to have substantial direct investments in foreign countries. Secondly, these international operations need to be actively managed (Bartlett, Beamish, 2014). Since
The objective of MNC to operate in other countries is to gain competitive advantage through several ways. Firstly, MNC is able to take advantage of difference in country-specific circumstances. For example, MNC may choose to locate its productions in less developed country like Vietnam to gain cheap labor cost. Secondly,
“Researchers and theorists suggest that the skills and techniques of a MNC are very different than those of an organization without a global presence.”
The OLI theory refers to ownership, location, and internationalization (Dunning, 2000). It is a basic theory proposed by John Dunning in an attempt to explain the incentives behind the MNEs going overseas (Dunning, 1993), organizational forms of MNEs, the MNE’s location choices, and the decision choice that lay between FDI and its alternatives like international licensing, trade and outsourcing (Javorick, 2004). The Ownership advantage is how a firm’s tangible and intangible assets are used in overcoming extra costs of doing business in the global market and explain why a home-grown country firm as opposed to a foreign firm manufactures in a foreign country. Location advantage offers explanation to why a home-based MNE may choose to manufacture in a foreign country instead of home country (Helpman et al., 2004). Lastly, internationalization advantage is attributed to why a home-based MNE may choose FDI instead of licensing to gain production in a foreign country (Athreye and Chen, 2009).
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are big corporate business that produce goods and services in more than one country, including its home country. An MNC can operate in very many countries and most often, they hire labour from the exact same country they choose to operate in. These companies normally operate in host countries where they can find cheap labour or numerous unexploited resources which they are unable to find or have already been depleted in their home countries.