Structure of Nucleotides and DNA Essay

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Structure of nucleotides and DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic (DNA) is the molecule that hold the genetic information of living things. In our body every cell contains about 2 meters of DNA. DNA is copied every time a cell divides. Deoxyribonucleic (DNA) is made up of two polynucleotide strands. Polynucleotide strands twist around each other, forming a shape that looks like a ladder called a double helix. The two polynucleotide strands run antiaparallel to each other with nitrogenous bases this means that the stands run in opposite directions, parallel to one another. The DNA molecule consists of two backbones chains of sugars and phosphate groups. The organic bases held together by hydrogen bonds. Although bases bonded together are termed paired
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4. Finally, all the nucleotides are joined to form a complete polynucleotide chain using DNA polymerase. The two new DNA molecules form double helices.

• Protein synthesis
Transcription is where DNA is transcribed into RNA which then can be pass to the ribosome’s to act as a template for protein synthesis. Before transcription can begin DNA must unwind and the two halves of the molecule much come apart so exposing the base sequence. This process begins when a region of a two DNA strands is unzipped by enzyme called RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA molecule at the imitation site.

• Mutations

When DNA replicates or its transcribed into RNA can cause changes in the sequence of bases which makes up the genetic code. Know that a set of three bases in a gene in DNA codes for a particular amino acid.

• Point Mutation: is a nucleotide base change in the DNA that is caused by mutation. It may result in the loss, addition or substitution of a nucleotide. Where a single nucleotide base in the DNA strand is altered.

• Frameshift mutation: is a DNA mutation that occurs when there is a change in the DNA mutation system, which triggers a change in the organism. The type of change to the organism's DNA is type of mutation.

• Deletion Mutation: is a type of gene mutation wherein the deletion of nucleotides causes a shift in the reading frame of the
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