1. What were the pros and cons of working under the Studio System? Basically, the studio system controls everything from production to showing included the actors. Actors who worked with a studio were under contract with that studio and could only act in that studio's production. These contracts were seven years long and forbids the actors from doing any other projects, like radio or television along with regulating the actor’s lives. The studio actors that were under contract were mostly white; minorities did not get much contracted work. The actors were required to act in whatever film they were cast, do publicity for their films, promote product tie-ins and occasionally even be loaned out to other studios for a film or two. The actors were working six days a week and often for about 14 hours a day. It may have been a hectic schedule but they were putting out 10 to 20 films a year. Studios had everyone under contract from the actors to the directors, from the writers to the technical staff. I think there was an up and down side to the studio system. On the good side, all the employees were under contract and everyone was available when they were needed. Films were getting produced at much faster rate than they are today. I would think there would be less conflict between actors and directors because everyone would have to
In chapter two of The Cultures of American Film, the main focus is the establishment of studios. As demand for films rose in the early 1900’s, production companies needed to expand; this lead to the creation of large scale studios. In the early 1900’s, as films stated centering their focus
Sunset Boulevard directed by Billy Wilder in 1950 is based on how Norma Desmond, a huge Hollywood star, deals with her fall from fame. The film explores the fantasy world in which Norma is living in and the complex relationship between her and small time writer Joe Gillis, which leads to his death. Sunset Boulevard is seen as lifting the ‘face’ of the Hollywood Studio System to reveal the truth behind the organisation. During the time the film was released in the 1950s and 60s, audiences started to see the demise of Hollywood as cinema going began to decline and the fierce competition of television almost proved too much for the well established system. Throughout this essay I will discuss how Sunset Boulevard represents the Hollywood
Labor union is a group of organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests. Hollywood labor unions are considered necessary because even your favorite actor and/or actress could be treated unfairly bt studios. Actors were forced to worked long days with very little pay in the 20th century. Actors were also not allowed to work with other studios until their contract was over, so it was hard for them to advance in their careers. Having a union by their side helped them have a freelance workforce. Hollywood labor unions are also important because of the discrimination against race and sex. Studios will often try to pay less because of the race of an actor or will pay an
The "star system" was a method of developing and advancing the popularity of Hollywood movie stars. The system, which began during the height of the Hollywood studio system era, emphasized the image of the actor instead on the actual acting. The movie studio's profits were driven by the popularity of the stars that appeared in their films. According to Rocco, the stars had long term contracts with the movie studios that paid them a weekly salary, and the stars were identified with specific types of characters that would often be repeated in many movies. Belton stated that "the star provides the studio with a tangible attraction, an image that can be advertized and marketed, offsetting the less tangible qualities of the story, directing,
Thomas Schatz cites the 1950’s as the inevitable end of the Hollywood film studio system, with the signs appearing as early as the height of the second World War (472). However, the seeds of discontent and disintegration within the system were apparent as soon as the late 1930’s, exemplified in such films as Destry Rides Again (1939, George Marshall) and Mr. Smith Goes To Washington (1939, Frank Capra). The production of these two films and the paths down which they led their star (James Stewart), directors (at least Frank Capra), and studios (Universal and Columbia, respectively) are evidence of the decline of the studio system. The
During this time the film studios grew in power, new stars and directors were discovered and the eight major studios produced more than 7500 feature films. “These films were released by the studios to audiences eager to be entertained. More than 80 million people attended at least one film per week. This period enjoyed the greatest collection of talent gathered in one place.” (Motion Pictures, The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica, 2001)
The period of the 1920's to 1950's where known as the studio era in Hollywood. A few major companies monopolized the industry through vertical integration when the film companies controlled all production distribution and exhibition. The majors determined which movies were shown in which theatres, choosing their own over others. The theatres were often palaces, about spectacle and a night out more than the movie itself. Marcus Loew said , "we sell tickets to theatres, not movies" (pg 113 , Hollywood cinema, Maltby R, 2003). The majors forced
1a.) The American Studio System is a specific way of producing a film in which the film takes place mostly in a controlled environment created by the producers of the film. These studios had complete control over the film production market and used this control to dominate the film industry in the 1930’s and early 1940’s.
Just as the studio system did not appear from nowhere in 1930 it did not suddenly end in 1948. However, it’s a convenient date to signal the end of the golden age because of the Paramount decision. In 1948 the US supreme court ordered that the oligopolistic control of the majors was uncompetitive. The major studios were ordered to sell all their cinemas to allow fairer competition for films and to stop the system of block booking to allow other cinemas to negotiate for films. This of course meant that profits were reduced for the majors. However, this may have actually helped them as audiences began to decline in the 1950s for three major reasons: Competition from TV, Increasing affluence and Suburban living. During this period several stars
In the Motion Picture Patent Company (Old Hollywood) era there was an emphasis on those that were producing and directing the movies. With the production team as the focal point, this allowed the production company to keep most of their profit by not having to pay actors top dollar prices. This system also instilled control over the actors, by keeping their names from being promoted not many people would know of the actor allowing the production companies to maintain their exclusive access to said actor. These regulations also prevent actors from asking for higher pay. According to Britannica.com, The MPPC also had exclusive regulations on equipment such as the camera itself and raw film through Kodak allowing them to keep production cost down.
Hollywood Studios One day, my Mom surprised me that we were going to warm, fun Florida! We took a long, tiring, journey to the sun country airport in Minneapolis. We walked right and found my best buddy, aiden! We were so happy! We chatted and talked. Then we went to the waiting place to charge our dead video games and we waited for the long plane. Once it was ready, we grabbed our games and hurried onto the plane.
Representation Matters: Diversity in the Hollywood Television Industry A recent study done by the UCLA Bunche Center for African American Studies showed the lack of diversity within Hollywood by examining all the films released, television programs on broadcast, cable, or digital networks, as well as the actors, writers, directors, and producers
Kanye West, a famous hip-hop artist, stated in the latest episode of “Keeping Up with the Kardashians” that “the internet destroyed the music industry” (2015). What did he mean by this? He meant that since the boom of technology and the immergence of the Internet, it is easy for someone to place a file on the internet and share it worldwide. File sharing, in and of itself, is not illegal. The problem or the legality of file sharing comes to play when you share or receive a file that you did not pay for yourself. The copyright laws state that it is unlawful to download or share copyrighted works such as music or movies without the expressly written consent or authorization of the copyright owner. The music and motion picture industry have taken an aggressive approach in efforts to stop illegal file sharing and piracy. When I think of files sharing, the first couple of services that comes to mind are Napster and Pirate Bay.
The Studio System Key point about the studio system could be: Despite being one of the biggest industries in the United States, indeed the World, the internal workings of the 'dream factory' that is Hollywood is little understood outside the business.