Study And Contribution Of Nephrology Discipline

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1.0 INTRODUCTION TO REPORT
Professor Priscilla Sheath Kincaid-Smith (Smith) was a world-renowned nephrologist and trailblazer for Australian female scientists. This report will highlight some of her research and contribution to nephrology discipline such as the establishment of renal transplantation unit in The Royal Melbourne Hospital and the relationship between hypertension, analgesic usage and kidney diseases. In addition, the impact of her contributions to the current discipline will also be highlighted.

2.0 INTRODUCTION TO PRISCILLA SHEATH KINCAID-SMITH
Smith was born on 30th October 1926 in Johannesburg, South Africa. In school, she was a performing sportswoman and had intended to obtain a degree in physical education. It was only
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When she migrated to Australia, she first became a fellow researcher in Baker Institute before being promoted to senior associate in medicine, and then chosen as the Professor of Medicine at the University of Melbourne which she held that position till her retirement in 1991. Smith was also actively engaged in activities pertaining to prevention of renal failure in the 1970s, a continuity of her contribution in setting up the renal transplant unit in Royal Melbourne Hospital.

3.0 HISTORY OF DISCIPLINE
Nephrology is the branch of medicine that deals with the physiology and diseases of the kidneys. Studies on kidneys were much more focused post World War when there was no specialized studies or practice pertaining to kidneys back then. Jean Hamburger was one of the pioneers who established nephrology as a specialty from the undifferentiated medical field in 1951. It was the beginning of nephrology when Smith began to be actively involved in this discipline and thus, she was one of the trailblazers in the modern history of nephrology. “The name 'nephrology ' for this science was first used in about 1960” (Smith, 1998).

4.0 SMITH’S KEY RESEARCH AND CONTRIBUTION

4.1 Malignant Hypertension and Analgesic Nephropathy
Smith successfully proved that consumption of the classic headache powder (painkiller) named Bex and Vincents in the 1960s had led to kidney diseases. During Smith’s earlier research with McMichael in 1954, they were investigating clinical aspects for
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