Study Guide Essay

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1) What theological concerns prompted Martin Luther's challenge of the authority of the Catholic Church? What specific reforms did he advocate?
-The church was saying that you needed to be saved and you needed Catholic priest to be directly involved in your path to salvation. Luther put emphasis on an individual’s personal relationship with God through Jesus.

2) What were the circumstances of the English Reformation?
-Events of the English Reformation were in part associated with the wider process of feudalism and rise of nationalism, rise of common law and more.

3) By the end of the sixteenth century, which European countries had become Protestant and which had remained Catholic?
-PROTESTANT: Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland,
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On the other hand, in an absolute monarchy, the monarch is presumed to be God-(or other deity)-ordained, and rules with no limits on their power.

8) What factors encouraged the evolution of a constitutional government in England and the Netherlands?
-A bitter civil war, 1642-1649. Both had a prominent merchant class and enjoyed unusual prosperity. Both built commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference.

9) How did Louis XIV maintain control over the nobles of France? What were some of the structures of absolutism during his reign?
-He has a large standing army that kept order.

11) What factors led to the dramatic population growth of Europe between 1500 and 1700?
-American food crops improved Europeans’ nutrition and diets. Increased resistance to epidemic diseases after the mid-17th century. European population, between 1500-1800, increased from 81-180 million. Rapid growth of major cities. Cities increasingly important as administrative and commercial center.

12) What are the characteristics of capitalism in the early modern age? What financial innovations supported the growth of capitalism in Europe?
- Joint-stock companies like EEIC and VOC organized commerce on a new scale. Capitalism actively supported by governments, especially in England and Netherlands. Protected rights of private property, upheld contracts, settled disputed.
13) What are some of the social changes that resulted from the

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