Study The Association Between The Gut Microbiota And Brain Function

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Objectives: Short term objectives: To study the association between the gut microbiota and brain functions in response to the stress reactivity at different stages of early life. This research will also help to link the brain structures involved in stress reactivity. This research will help to understand, how the diversity and distribution of these prominent phyla contribute to health and disease. Long term objective: We plan to expand this research to a broader aspect to study the gut-brain axis with simultaneous stress exposure. This research presents a paradigm that is applicable in clinical studies and will provide basis for the psychiatric disorder treatments. Behavioral neuroscientists are increasingly recognizing the importance of…show more content…
In clinical studies, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was positively correlated with the severity of anxiety and depression (Charles et al., 1992). Central stress circuitry includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). There also exist a negative feedback loop between HPA axis and the immune system. Signaling is mediated by corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoid and their related receptors (Turnbull and Rivier, 1999). There also exists a negative feedback loop via glucocorticoid receptors and melanocorticoid receptors within the hippocampus (Turnbull and Rivier, 1999; Kellendonk et al., 2002). Dysregulation of HPA axis in rodents (Landgraf and Wigger, 2002; Jakovcecski et al., 2011) and in humans (Coryell et al., 2006) leads to anxiety and depression like symptoms respectively. Whereas, correction of the HPA axis with medications have shown improvement in depression (Wilkinson and Goodyer, 2011). Increase in levels of IL-1, TNF–α and increased mortality following immune challenge with LPS (Perretti et al., 1993; Goujon et al., 1996) have been reported in adrenalectomized rodents. The stress response in adrenalectomized rodents is reversible with dexamethasone treatment (Butler et al., 1989). Gut-microbiota-brain Axis and behavior: Over the recent years, the concept of interaction between peripheral
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