Substance Use And Substance Abuse

1813 Words8 Pages
In the United States there are 23.5 million people who are addicted to drugs and alcohol. Addiction affects a person spiritually ,emotionally and physically, it also causes chemical changes in the brain. Addiction I’m going to define by using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR. The DSM defines substance dependence as a “maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress” It defines these as the symptoms of substance dependence “tolerance as defined by A.need for markedly increased amount of the substance to achieve desired effect. B. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of substance 2.the substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a…show more content…
But it’s becoming common for him to be out this late. This is not the kind of person the narrator has wanted to become. He states “You see yourself as the kind of guy who wakes up early on Sunday morning and steps out to cop the Times and croissants”. (McInerney 4) This is the case for addicts they see themselves as someone they never imagined they would become .On the first page we are also informed about the narrator 's cocaine addiction. “ All might come clear if you could just slip into the bathroom and do a little more Bolivian Marching Powder” (McInerney 1 ) The narrator refers to cocaine as “Bolivian Marching Powder” to deceive himself calling cocaine by a different name. “He treats it with both levity and seriousness,but the latter rarely seems to gain the notice of scholars. Characters in the novel are at times amusingly lighthearted about the drug, acting as if it is harmless” ( Clark 80) It allows him to deceive himself from his present reality. Addiction causes chemical changes in the brain which then cause the sufferer to crave the substance more, “Your brain at this moment is composed of brigades of tiny Bolivian Soldiers. They are tired and muddy from their long march through the night. There are holes in their boots and they are hungry. They need to be fed. They need the Bolivian Marching Powder” (McInerney 2) As a result of his addiction
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