Areas of red skin that doesn’t go away when pressure applied, sore skin, dry skin, hot or cold areas of skin, blisters or broken skin should all be reported. Discoloured skin should also be reported.
On the other hand, if the right side of the heart fails, then it will cause a portion of the blood from the ventricle to flow backward creating problems in venous circulation. Blood pressure in the veins will cause edema in multiple areas of the body. Peripheral edema may be visible in the lower extremities of the patient as they will appear swollen in this area, like the abdominal region (Lewis et al., 2014). The swelling of the spleen and the liver may not be visible but it can be present depending on the progress of HF. The jugular vein will look bulging from pressure built up called jugular venous distention (Lewis et al., 2014). The heart will have a murmur and tachycardia may be present. A few other signs of heart failure are liver failure and weight gain associated with kidney failure (Lewis et al.,
DVTs usually occur within the deep veins of the lower leg. The DVTs that remain in the lower leg and calf tend to be asymptomatic and do not become clinically significant. A DVT is most likely to present symptoms when the proximal leg veins are involved and also when the DVT obstructs venous outflow resulting in inflammation of the vein wall (Bonner and Johnson, 2014). Warmth, redness, pain and swelling in the affected limb are common symptoms of a DVT. If a patient presents with these symptoms, a physical examination of the whole limb should be undertaken by a nurse or physician to observe for signs suggestive of a DVT. Suggestive symptoms of DVTs include superficial venous dilation, tenderness along the course of the vein, unilateral leg oedema, cyanosis, warmth and erythema (Bonner and Johnson, 2014). On examination of the limb, these are the symptoms that the nurse or physician should be looking out for, however, diagnosis on clinical presentation alone is extremely difficult as these symptoms are not specific to DVT and can be present in numerous other conditions. To improve accuracy when determining the probability of a DVT, nurses are advised to use the two level DVT Wells score. Each clinical feature is accompanied with a score. If a patient presents with a score that is two points or higher, it is likely that a DVT is present and
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an epidemic that rain rapid in Australia and was a very big concern. The study of this sickness was a major Problem as it had affected the demographic area of Perth, Australia. The epidemic is a very big problem as VTE is connected with the trauma, surgery, and cancer and this sickness is caused while
A pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood vessel in your lung becomes blocked by a blood clot that travels to your lungs from another part of your body, usually your leg.A pulmonary embolism can be fatal. So, it's important to be on the lookout for signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism and seek medical attention if they occur. A common complication that can occur after deep vein thrombosis is a condition known as postphlebitic syndrome, also called post thrombotic syndrome. This syndrome is used to describe multiple signs and symptoms like edema, leg pains, skin sores, and skin discoloration. This syndrome is caused by the damage to your veins from a blood clot. This damage lowers blood flow in the affected areas. The symptoms might not occur until a few years after the
Fluids have gone from the body, causing a decreased quantity of Volume in the blood vessels. Venous return is decreased because of the diminishing Fluid in the vascular space, leading to decreased Ventricular filling. The decrease of Ventricle filling leads to reduced stroke
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including both deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is reognised as the leading cause of preventable in-hospital mortality. DVT is the formation of blood clots in a deep vein- usually the large veins in the leg or pelvis. The most serious complication of a DVT is that the clot could dislodge and travel to the lungs, becoming a life-threatening blood clot in the lungs, pulmonary embolism. When a blood clot breaks loose and travels in the blood, this is called a venous thromboembolism. An inflammatory reaction is usually present mainly in the superficial veins and, for this reason this pathology is often called thrombophlebitis. It is a disorder that can occur in all races and ethnicities, all age groups, and both genders. Despite a marked increase in federal and national efforts to raise awareness and acknowledge the need for VTE prevention, VTE continues to remain as an important and growing public health problem. Unfortunately, VTE recurs frequently and is commonly overlooked, affects both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients, and results in long-term complications including chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH) and the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS).
BRVO may be due to a combination of 3 primary mechanisms: abnormal arteriovenous crossing with vein compression, degenerative changes of the vessel wall, and abnormal hematological factors that ultimately lead to vessel occlusion.5 Arteries and veins share a common adventitial sheath, when the artery hardens due to hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or some other underline systemic condition it presses against a thin-walled
CVS occurs in four phases; prodromal, emetic, recovery, and asymptomatic. During the prodromal phase, the individual may feel nausea, fatigue, feverish, lightheadedness, and a sense of doom, among others. They may also experience tachycardia and hypertension due to adrenaline.
Venous wound is another type of chronic wounds. Venous ulcers can either happen because the blood has difficulty or cannot return to the heart (Healthwise, 2014). Venous ulcers are basically damage in the skin above or below the ankles (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). The main cause of venous wounds is unknown, but venous ulcers will result in having hydrostatic pressure, which may cause edema (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). Although venous wound or ulcers are known to increase cytokines, decreased fibrinolysis as well as increasing inflammation (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). Venous wounds are usually very painful, although that it is not a life threat (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). Venous wound has risk factors that may delay the treatment, which are obese,
When the blood ceases to flow smoothly up the legs back to the heart and lungs, it may be because the veins are weak and not performing their intended function. The walls of the veins and the tiny valves inside that, with the help of the surrounding muscles, push the blood against gravity. When this does not happen, the blood pools in the veins causing them to bulge and twist. They may show beneath the surface of the skin as bluish, purple varicose veins. These inefficient veins may be large or small, and there are different treatments for each.
Distributive shock is caused by conditions producing direct arteriovenous shunting and is characterized by decreased SVR or increased venous capacitance because of the vasomotor dysfunction (Ren, 2017). The pathophysiology in distributive shock is the inadequate tissue perfusion caused by loss of the normal responses of vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrictive agents coupled with a direct vasodilating effect (Lessnau, 2018). The clinical manifestations of distributive shock include low blood pressure, cardiac arrest, cool/clammy skin, pale skin, rapid and/or weak pulse, rapid/shallow breathing, dull eyes, unconsciousness, weakness, confusion, anxiety, restlessness, altered mental state, rapid heart rate, thirst, dry mouth, and fatigue (Right Diagnosis, 2015).
Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins are not effectively pushing the blood back to the heart. The veins have valves that help push the blood along. When these valves fail to function properly, the blood starts to pool in the vein and cause it to bulge and twist and show beneath the skin. The results are not only unsightly, but may be unhealthy. There are several reasons veins become weak.
When the swollen vein gets close to the surface of the skin, it can burst from pressure or rupture from being knocked and start to bleed. This is called venous ulcers and is not easy to heal. It may take months to completely heal and it is possible to lose a lot of blood when it first
Obvious skin disorders such as rosacea, psoriasis, and scarring from severe burns, are some ways different from other diseases or disorders. As Lawton (2002) said, “Skin conditions are, by their vary nature, visible”. Apart from the similar needs of patients with other diseases, patients with obvious skin disorders have to tackle how people perceive them and this generated the huge impacts on their lives physically and psychologically. These impacts not just happen to patients so as to their families. Because of the nature of the skin disorder, it triggers some reactions from the society: patients look “different” from anyone. These patients are subjected to stares, insult, antagonism, and negative comments with poor hygiene. Knott (2014) expressed the similar ideas that the public held stigma and expressed fear, ignorance, and prejudice to the patients who had skin disorders. These patients did not only need to cope with the effects of the diseases as well as the reactions of others and this generated lots of psychologically burden such as distress, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, low self-esteem, shame, embarrassment, poor body image, and social isolation. Clay (2015) mentioned that dermatologist nowadays was much more accepting psychologists got more involved in helping dermatology patients and created a new field called psychodermatology. He had quoted some significate data such as there was 90% of respondents reported lowered self-esteem and self-confident, 54% reported anxiety