Concussions are a form of brain injury that is medically defined as a condition that modifies the way in which an individual’s brain essentially functions as a result of significant trauma to the head or body (Mayo Clinic, 2016). While most people believe that concussions can only be sustained by receiving a direct blow to the head itself, concussions can actually develop from any forceful acceleration to either the head or the body as long as the impact is hard enough (Edwards & Bodle, 2014). The amount of energy that is generated by such dynamic contact basically causes the brain to jolt back and forth against the skull surrounding it, thereby damaging the neurological structure almost instantaneously. However, most concussions tend to lean more to the milder side of the brain injury spectrum and, in most cases, the
Concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents the most common type of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Even though this type of TBI is called “mild”, the effect on the family and the injured person can be devastating. Concussions can be tricky to diagnose and there is no specific cure for concussion. There is growing recognition and some evidence that mild mechanical trauma resulting from sports injuries, military combat, and other physically engaging pursuits may have cumulative and chronic neurological consequences [3, 4]. However there is still a poor understanding of concussions and their effects. Studying mild brain injury in humans is challenging since it is restricted to cognitive assessment and brain imaging evaluation. Animal models provide a means to study concussions in a rigorous, controlled, and efficient manner with the hope of further diagnosis and treatment of mTBI.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is becoming more prevalent every year, “with an incidence of about 100 to 300 per 100 000” (Konrad et al 2010). Mild traumatic brain injury or concussion can be the result of any minor trauma to the head from accident, sports related injury, blast injury, or fall. “Possible acute symptoms of mTBI comprise short-time unconsciousness, headache, dizziness, irritability, anxiety and impaired neuropsychological functions such as reduced attention, concentration or memory problems” (Evans, 1992; Hall et al. 2005 as cited by Konrad et al 2010). Some people who sustain a mTBI return to base level of function within hours and some take up to two months, there are even those that years later have not fully
In the United States alone, there are approximately one million head injuries reported every year; eighty five percent of these injuries are classified as mild traumatic brain injuries. Traumatic brain injuries, also known as concussions, are the leading cause of death and disability for neurological disorders before the age of fifty. Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are one of the most prevalent, and have become a major public health issue. A few of the main reasons there are so many problems with traumatic brain injuries (TBI), are lack of reporting by the patients, physician’s misdiagnosis or undiagnosed, and lack of awareness.
Traumatic brain injury occurs when a person is hit in the head with a blunt force. This significant force to the head can happen playing recreational sports, on the playground, being in a car or motorcycle accident, falling down at home and your head impacting something, a blast or explosion. Traumatic brain injuries are also the leading cause of fatality rate and disability, especially in children, young adults and elderly. TBI is a devastating condition that affects millions of people nationwide, because it can affect the nervous system permanently, it also messes with the neurological, musculoskeletal, cognitive and much more. TBI force a family to deal with not just the physical disability, with the behavioral and emotional roller
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a type of injury that is a critical public health and socio-economic problem. TBI is a leading cause of death and disability in both children and adults . The Centers for Disease Control and
Perhaps one of the least understood injuries is a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), otherwise known as a concussion. Over 1,000,000 concussions occur the United States every year (Majerske et al., 2008), and can be caused by any blow to the head. It is likely that many concussions do not go diagnosed. 300,000 of these concussion have been contributed to sports related injury (Majerske et al., 2008), making the study of sports related concussions in athletes the most important and easiest subjects to study.
A traumatic brain injury (“TBI”) occurs when the brain is somehow injured, rattled, or wounded from an external source of force. The means of acquisition and the severity of TBIs are unique to each patient; therefore, symptoms and rehabilitation can vary greatly depending on the patient’s condition following the incident and how they sustained the injury. The severity of a TBI is generally classified into one of three categories: mild, moderate, or severe, and this type of diagnostic criteria influences how a patient with TBI is treated by medical staff and rehabilitation specialists. TBIs can affect a specific part of the brain that was directly impacted, leaving the patients with only one or a few areas of impairment, or the damage can
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide health problem that can lead to death or long-term disability even in people with mild TBI, especially in young population (Menon et al., 2010). More than 1.3 million visits to emergency department in the United States report for TBI (Faul et al., 2010). TBI can lead to sundry impairments and disabilities in physical , functional, cognitive, emotional and social realms which remarkably reduce health-related quality of life(HRQL) (Scholten et al., 2015: Andelic et al., 2009). TBI can be classified according to it severity into mild-moderate and sever TBI. Mild TBI (MTBI) also termed concussion score for over 77% of the entire reported TBI cases in the United States. About 40% of these cases are frequently
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) also known as a concussion is a serious health problem to athletes, especially to football players. The brain controls the body and gives a person personality and defines every aspect of his or her life. A brain injury can disrupt a person’s life in an instance and like broken bones or bruises; TBI can limit or prevent normal body functions. A brain injury, unlike common injuries can damage mental abilities to include memory and speech. There are only two classifications in TBI; mild and severe. Mild TBI is classified as loss of consciousness and or confusion and disorientation for less than thirty minutes. Severe TBI is thirty or more minutes and with memory loss. A person
Traumatic brain injury in general is characterized by the changes in brain function due to some sort of a biomechanical force induced by either directly or indirectly as a hit or blow to the head (Facts and Prevention, 2015). Mild traumatic brain injury, which will be considered as equivalent term with concussion, was defined by the International Conference on Concussion in Sport as a complex pathophysiological process induced by biomechanical forces (Mccrory et al., 2013). This penetrating head injury will disrupt the normal function of the brain. The cause of sports-related brain injury can be induced by a direct or indirect blow to the head. Injury can also be caused by the force of impulse due to impacts on other parts of the body being
According to the Center for Disease Control, traumatic brain injuries contribute to about 30% of all injury deaths. Traumatic brain injuries are classified as “severe” or “mild”. The most common type of TBI is mild and called a concussion. The CDC estimates 2.8 billion emergency
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), or intracranial injury, is a medical diagnosis which refers to closed or penetrative damage to the brain that is caused by an external source. Every year, TBIs affect approximately 150-250 people in a population of 100,000 (León-Carrión, Domínguez-Morales, Martín, & Murillo-Cabezas, 2005). The leading causes of TBI are traffic accidents, work injuries, sports injuries, and extreme violence (León-Carrión et al., 2005). TBI is most often fatal when the cause is an injury due to the use of firearms, a traffic accident, or a long fall (León-Carrión et al., 2005). However, fatality rates and rates of occurrence differ in various countries due to
Traumatic Brain Injury is otherwise known as TBI. “Traumatic brain injury, a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue” (NINDS, 2010). There are two main types of TBI, closed head injuries such as head hitting a windshield and penetrating head injuries such as a gunshot wound. As reported by the Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation,” The severity of traumatic brain injuries is often assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale, with scores ranging from 3 to 15. The higher the score,