First, Europe’s relationship with India was of mutual prosperity and trade. Until the East India Company began to create a monopoly for itself in Indian trade, pushing out other European rivals, notably the French, followed it’s by conquest of the country, that phase was from 1600 to 1757 was not an unequal colonial relationship. The East India Company had a large interest in promoting the export of silks and cotton textiles from India which soon began to be noticed on British industrial
The Origins of the Modern World by Robert B. Marks is a book about the historical changes that have happened in the period of 1400-1850. He shows that how Asia is the center prior of the 1800s not the standard Eurocentric and it 's a polycentric world in term of the world trade. In the Origins, he focuses on the economic history where geographical on China, India, and England. In the beginning of the book he starts with a summary of "Rise of the West" where he say " the west as dynamic, forward looking, progressive, and free, and Asia as stagnating, backward, and despotic. After that he started building up or narrating the historical events in five-chapters based on an his vision of the world history, and he does it in a way that makes the reader agree with him to get the main key of the historical concept such as conjuncture. Also he takes about the most advanced societies across the Eurasian (China and England) and the two economic structures ( biological old regime and trading networks). He also takes the importance of the Indian ocean and he sees it as the "most important crossroads for global exchanges of goods, ideas, and culture" when Europe was " a peripheral, marginal player trying desperately to gain access to the sources of wealth generated in Asia. He brings a very good evidence that pictures the traditional China 's technological and Naval superiority, of the "well-developed market system" in Asia. Also he showed he superior quality of the Indian cottons and the
India is a great example about how they were too weak. India is probably in the best position for trade, due to its central location between Africa and Asia. India was a great area for trade.Before the West’s power overtook India, it was small not unified. In document 5 a person can be seen weaving on their own. This is before they were introduced to industrial textile production. The British wanted to take control of India and combine with them to become bigger and stronger. Britain saw India as a market and is a source of raw materials they built roads and impressive railroads to transport factory made goods across the subcontinent. These roads and railroads are used to carry materials such as coal and cotton to coastal ports to transfer the factories in England. This description of India can relate to Document 6, in this document a railroad is seen being built under British control. Railroads are an example of modernization taking over this country.
For many decades, China has always been technologically and economically ahead of Europe. The invention of gunpowder, printing, and the compass started in China and was later dispersed throughout Europe. These inventions changed China as much as they changed Europe. These inventions also caused a gap between China and Europe. By the late eighteenth century, industrial revolution first started its spread from Europe.The transformations within Europe began to further accelerate while China was falling behind. In Europe, economic transformation was accompanied by social transformation. The social and demographic changes that were taking place, created the pressure for political change as well. Europe was expanding both demographically and economically, which strengthening their power in the global order. Conversely, China constrained itself from the outside world and focus on internal progresses ranging from agriculture to social classes. Why were industries in China more labor-intensive than those in Europe? In addition to its diverse geography and the belief of being self-sufficient, China struggled to transition to experiment-cum-science-based invention as well as rejecting the opportunity to create bonds and capital markets with other nations.
So during imperialism the British wanted to colonize india because of it’s manufacturing and raw materials that they produce. This new industrial system was highly successful; resulting a tremendous increase in the number of goods that individual worker could produce (Connolly). For example, before the Industrial Revolution, textiles were primarily made of wool and were hand spun. But, with the invention of the spinning wheel and the loom, cloth was produced quicker and eventually replaced wool in the textile field” ("thomasnet). Between 1770 and 1790 the production of cotton increase in Great Britain (textbook pg,286). By 1800, the manufacture of cotton cloth bag becomes the nation’s single most important industry. However, with materials now being produced quicker and cheaper the need for manufactured goods was greater than the supply. In order to meet the demand many manufactures hired children to work in their factories, It has been estimated that a million of children between the ages of five and seventeen worked as a child laborers in the UK during the Industrial Revolution. Although children had been servants and apprentices
Mao Zedong, the leader of China during the third quarter of the 20th century, organized two movements in his country in an attempt to develop China 's economy through the establishment of communism. Through The Great Leap Forward, Mao planned to change the layout of the Chinese economy by forcing collectivism on his country and implementing other ways to speed up production. Since this movement failed, he then implemented The Cultural Revolution. It consisted of the same goals but was carried out through violence and was also an utter failure. These two movements failed because of the lack of organization with which they were performed. This lack of organization manifested itself in a number of different ways. The government did not care about their people, the reforms themselves were not planned out in detail, the government did not think about the spontaneity of young people, they did not consider the effect violence would have on their country, they did not realize the decline in education that would result from the participation of students in the revolution, they did not plan well economically, they did not examine the negative effects of communes, and they did not foresee the large number of deaths that would plague their country. Although designed to rapidly increase China 's economic growth through communism, the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution had the opposite effects and significantly diminished China 's economy. The two direct causes of the failure
Tracing back the history of China, Xia Dynasty of the second millennium BCE was the earliest dynasty in China, which was centered along the Yellow River. Before China was unified, it was the time during which most of China's cultural tradition arose. Chinese civilization ascended and developed in a vast area, one-third larger than the United States if such dependencies as Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, and Tibet are included. For centuries China was almost completely isolated from the other centers of civilization by mountains, deserts, and seas. This isolation helps explain the great originality of China's culture. China has many mountain ranges and three river systems that rise close together on the high Tibetan plateau and flow eastward to
The Industrial Revolution occurred from the 1750s to the early 1900s was a importance movement transforming Europe and America from Agrarian and rural societies to the industrial and urban systems . This was an important movement brought multiple changes of the advances in technology, transportations, trades and manufactures . For thousand of years, China had been ahead with many technological marvels, but it did not take the lead in the Industrial Revolution due to some factors, including the great impacts of Confucius philosophy and the failure of political, diplomatic and economic policies .
As trade increased in the Indian Ocean basin, neighboring lands like South Asia and Southeast Asia began to engage in specialized production of commodities for the commercial market, which led to a stronger economy. Regional specialization in areas like India, East Africa, Southeast Asia, and China led to the changes in the Indian Ocean trade network. During the postclassical India, the state produced high quality cotton textiles, pepper, and carpet weaving, leather, iron and steel production, and sugar refineries. This allowed merchants to create local, thriving industries because of high demands for specific agricultural products, providing employment for artisans and enabled consumers to import goods from other regions. Not only was India
In the pre industrial era, textiles were a priceless trade commodity that became a symbol for wealth, prestige and power. Several Asian countries contributed to the esteem and success of the Asian textile trade. Amid the popularity of silk in the Chinese empire, India was producing textiles of such high quality that they followed the global success of the silk trade in the world market and at home within the empire. Like many of the other major Asian empires, the strength of the subcontinent resided significantly in their textile trade and production. Europeans recognized the quality of Indian textiles, and therefore they quickly became a popular commodity for the rich. The substantial amount of trade happening through Indian ports served to strengthen the Mughal Empire within India, and solidify India as a premier textile manufacturing Asian country. By the turn of the eighteenth century, India was one of the largest textile manufacturing countries in the world. In India the cotton textile industry was flourishing well before the arrival of the
Industrialization was another important way in which the Japanese exercised its imperialism in Taiwan. Before their rule, Taiwan was not very developed in infrastructure hence it was difficult for people to move from one part of the island to the other. Taiwan was seen as a source of raw materials for the industries in Japan as well as an overseas market for its goods and services. The region also provided an important outpost and Confederate defensive position. A network of railroads was constructed connecting all their areas of the Island to ease movement. The enhanced infrastructure impacted development in the area and folks were able to carry out businesses. Modernization of infrastructure promoted the rise in importance of people’s
The political factor including state policies of diplomacy, economy, trading and transportation played a major role in the absence of China in Industrial Revolution. The most well known policy called Hanjin or Sea Ban was the result of isolated policies restricting private maritime trades to deter piracy, and coastal settlement during the Ming dynasty. After a period of maritime explorations by Zheng He in the early 15th century, the Ming Dynasty started limiting the state connection with the rest of the world. The isolated policies still remained to the Qing. The release of sea ban resulted serious backwardness in the development of China in social economic aspects. On the other hand, the system of the bureaucracy was one factor in discouraging
In the case of China, reforms to consolidate and centralize the empire through urban projects started during the late part of the Qin dynasty and adopted by its successor, the Han dynasty. In 221 B.C., Emperor Shih huang-ti ordered that an extensive communications network be set up and required walls, canals, and other physical obstructions to be removed. These steps facilitated the Imperial Court’s control, expedited communication throughout the empire, and strengthened centralization while reducing the growth of local power in rural areas. In addition, he ordered a uniform road design across the empire. The vast imperial highways that connected key political, economic, and military centers were uniform in size and protected by an outer wall. Uniformity was also extended to the size of carts that may use the roads. For easier ways to facilitate communication and travel, post stations were set up along the highways at fixed distances to provide lodging and food for travelers. Stretching across the empire, the roads covered two million square miles and consolidated the region into a single entity through this massive communications network and unified transportation system under the state. Thus, the communications network Han China adopted was extensive. Following Han China’s policy of territorial expansion, roads were essential to support military campaigns against the Xiongnu and created stable conditions for the transit of goods over the Silk Road. Indeed, the Xiongnu
The great economic divergence between China and Europe has generated countless debates, and as various scholars unite to provide reasons for this phenomenon, numerous interesting theories are born. Among these views is the monumental theory of history researcher and professor Kenneth Pomeranz. Pomeranz’s theory lists Europe’s convenient access to coal and the New World colonies as the chief reasons for its industrialization. However, many scholars, such as history professor Peter Coclanis , question these claims and believe the divergence was caused by additional factors, not just coal and the New World colonies. Pomeranz and Coclanis make interesting comments on the ecological, cultural and political differences that existed in both areas and how each contributed to this divergence. Historically, there have been numerous theories that attempt to explain the Great Divergence, and analysis of Pomeranz’s essay and Coclanis’ article help reveal many potential causes.
Mao Zedong once stated, “Communism is at once a complete system of proletarian ideology and a new social system. It is different from any other ideological and social system, and is the most complete, progressive, revolutionary and rational system in human history. The ideological and social system of feudalism has a place only in the museum of history. The ideological and social system of capitalism has also become a museum piece in one part of the world (in the Soviet Union), while in other countries it resembles ‘a dying person who is sinking fast, like the sun setting beyond the western hills’, and will soon be relegated to the museum. The communist ideological and social system alone is full of youth and vitality, sweeping the world