Assessing the children understanding is considered to be a good indicator of their learning and development process (Reys et al., 2012). Stiggins (2002) discussed the difference between the children’s assessment for learning and assessment of learning. Teachers need to be familiar with both. Assessment for learning (or as we call it the formative assessment) helps the students to learn more about different concepts and increase the opportunity to develop various skills. On the other side, assessment of learning (summative assessment) is to give the teacher an evidence of students’ achievements for purposes of accountability and reporting. For example, assessment for learning can include the teacher’s observations, in-class assignments,
Formative assessment focuses on conducting how the student learns over time. Teachers test based on understanding and comprehending of the lesson such as; chapter tests or small quizzes. This third grade teacher uses review packets, chapter tests, bonus homework sheets, individual whiteboard sheets, and whole-class discussions. For example, if a child is learning about multiplication and has to apply the concept to a word problem, but has no concept in combing the lesson to solve the problem. This informs the teacher that the child doesn’t understand the lesson or needs to go back to change how it could be taught differently. These assessments shows the teacher whether the child understand the concept they are learning or whether the teacher needs to change her teaching. Summative assessment has a different goal towards the students’ learning at the end of a unit by comparing it against some benchmark score. This assessment focuses on the curriculum aspect on assessing the whole picture meaning the unit at the end of the lesson. The practicum teacher works on providing checklists, checking problems before moving on to the next problem, using hand signals, and writing in their math journals. Students enjoy using hand signals to answer the problem and use their individual white boards to personally solve the problem. There are a few benefits of using hand signals in the classroom. Incorporating these signals provide teachers a quick visual check on whether the students understand how to solve a problem and comprehend the problem. For example; using thumbs-up, hands on your
Efficient educators know and understand the importance of selecting, planning, and implementing effective assessment tools and strategies that measure student’s levels of understanding. Different types of assessments are used for a broad range of purposes that include formative, placement, diagnostic, and summative assessments. However, the main purpose is to “foster learning in all its forms” (Lefrancois, 2013, Ch. 6.1). Teachers use pre, formative, and summative assessments to determine what students know before, during, and after instruction. Each measurement is used to plan, modify, and adjust instruction to meet the needs of all learners. Although each form of assessment plays a critical role in ensuring all students succeed, educators
Assessments are vital to the educational process. They provide feedback about what the students know and what they may need to learn in order to obtain the content within a given curriculum. It provides teachers with a glimpse into the student’s readiness on a particular topic or subject. One of the six key principles of having an effective differentiated classroom is having a formative assessment that informs teachers on the effectiveness of their teaching. It also provides teachers with the readiness levels of their students and shows them exactly where the students’ readiness, interests, and learning profile needs really are (Tomlinson, 2014).
I am a strong believer that one test defines a students. Therefore, variety is key when assessing students. When using formative assessment I use student reflections, journal entries, exit cards in addition to non verbal communication such as thumbs up or down. I also make anadotal notes on students to help assess the overall learning journey of the student. When using summative assessments, I use district assessments, state assessments, portfolios, short answer, multiple choice, and student based projects. In all forms of assessments, students are provided the appropriate accommodations. My learning goal for assessing students is to have a valid assessment that demonstrate the student’s understanding of the specific skill. It is crucial that I understand the purpose of the assessments and the content that is being taught, therefore, I often start instruction with the assessment piece in
As a part of the instructional process, a formative assessment is very important. It is generally incorporated into the basic practices of the classroom, and provides information that teachers can use in order to adjust the learning and teaching "in real time" (Adey, 2005; Leung, 2007; McClain & Cobb, 2001). In other words, teachers see what they need to do right away, because they are engaged in what the students are learning and how the students are responding to that learning. Because of that, formative assessments are good at helping both students and teachers stay informed about the understanding students are having regarding a particular lesson (Clarke, 2001). Because that information is provided so quickly, changes can be made if there are problems. Teachers do not have to wait until a test or other milestone indicates that there are issues with which the students are struggling, and that is very good news for the teachers and for the students who need help and support.
Evaluation is central to clinical supervision to perform as gatekeeping functions that require responsibility placed on supervisors (Bernard and Goodyear, 2014). Evaluation provides clear distinction between counseling and supervision (Inskipp, 1996). Distinction between formative and summative evaluation is key when supervising (Bernard and Goodyear, 2014). Formative evaluations provide direct and observational skill based feedback through weekly documentation for supervisors to assess supervisees’ effectiveness as a professional in training (Bernard and Goodyear, 2014). Summative evaluations provide an overall picture to decide whether goals and progress met standards and expectations of supervisors (Bernard and Goodyear, 2014). Summative evaluations used mostly in educational settings, seek to make decisions among supervisees. In conjunction with supervisors and education coordinators making decisions about the supervisee, the amount of time invested filling out evaluations is crucial to present clear and distinct assessments for those being evaluated (Bernard and Goodyear, 2014).
In my short period of teaching, I have experienced many different types of assessments, those that were administratively required and personally selected. One particular style of assessments that I often use is curriculum-based measurement assessments (CBM probes). On a daily basis I test/quiz my students to make sure that they understand each required step to solve the problems. Sometimes this comes in the form of a quiz, and other times it is presented as a quick check that lasts about a minute long during my class. According to Kubiszyn and Borich (2013) the frequent administration of these brief formative test allows me to make daily adjustments to instruction, when needed, to maximize my students learning. As a result, curriculum based assessments are effective for my students because we can always go back and revisit a topic or concept
When a teacher introduces the idea of formative assessment to a classroom, modifications may need to be made for it to work its purpose. The teacher might need to alter their teaching method and the student will need to be open to changing their learning style to accommodate the change. If both the teacher and students can achieve this, then formative assessment will be successful (al., C. E., 2016). If unsuccessful then formative assessment can be seen by both the teacher and student in a negative light. For example, The Classroom Experiment (Barry, 2010), showcased a range of different formative assessment techniques that can be quite successful in the classroom. One technique that Dylan Wiliam posed was that the teachers give each student
Assessment is an essential part of the teaching and learning process. Assessment is most effective when there is alignment between the outcomes, the design of assessment tasks, the criteria, marking procedures and feedback provided; this referred to as constructive alignment (Potter & Kustra, 2012). The purpose of an assessment, and the modes and strategies used will depend on a number of factors. Diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment are three modes of assessment that may be used. While each of these modes of assessment has a particular purpose, the underlying purpose of all assessments is to promote student learning (Brady & Kennedy, 2012).
Assessment is a tool and it has a variety of purposes or functions. Sometimes we call that the formative purpose the informative meaning for learning. The formative assessment information is used to figure out what we should be doing next and how we can adapt and improve future learning. In some cases, we need to asses because we need to figure out how well all of our students have done or mastered a particular content for grading purpose so that is the case we call the summative function of an assessment. According to Guskey (2003), assessment helps teachers to improve the quality of their teaching by identifying what works or doesn’t work in their classroom. As educators, we use formative assessment
Various modes of assessment such as formative and summative assessment should be used to cater for the diversity of all students. Students will be able to demonstrate what they know and understand; from this teachers will see which areas are in need of
A. Pre-assessment/Assessment of Prior Knowledge- 1. Students may have misconceptions or misunderstanding about the drinking water shortages in some places on Earth. Students may not understand how the temperature of the water will affect the salinity of the water. Students may misunderstand information about the Gulf Stream and they may think that it is located in the Gulf of Mexico. Another partial understanding students may have is how the sloping of the ocean floor affects the wave heights. Lastly, students may have a misconception about the subsurface geologic features of the oceans compared to geologic features of the World, like volcanoes and ocean trenches.
In your units, please include a minimum of two formative assessments and one summative assessment. The formative assessments should identify the critical content knowledge and skills, and suggest a formative assessment technique necessary to monitor student comprehension. This is critically important for first and second year teachers. If first and second year teachers are not provided the key “stop light” moments, they are likely to breeze by critical precursory knowledge and skills, and then be disappointed when students do not perform well on summative assessments. The summative assessment should be designed to produce a data point (i.e. grade) that aligns with standards and standardized assessments, and may be used by a data team as part of a Response to Intervention process. The summative assessment should be common; the expectation is that all teachers instructing the course administer the common summative assessment, calibrate assessment practices, meet in PLC groups to review/discuss student work, and identify students for tier 1 and tier 2
Recently, whenever I hear current teachers discussing about assessing students, ‘Formative Assessment’ is sure to be highlighted. Nowadays this method (formative assessment) is becoming popular among schools and is being applied widely in schools including my own school. Loughland and Kilpatrick (2015) identified in the few past decades, formative assessment has turned out to be the main goal for teachers and educational systems. On the foundation of Loughland and Kilpatrick (2015) findings and from my experience in the field of teaching, I found out nowadays teachers and school stakeholders strongly feel that formative assessment is the best method to assess in order to enhance students’ learning. For these evident reasons, I am interested in finding