Genetic testing has become a highly controversial issue among both the general population and the scientific community. It is a process that exposes a person’s entire genome sequence, allowing it to be read and evaluated to identify potential risks for genetic diseases or diseases that could be passed onto offspring (Holt Productions, 2012). With thousands of genetic tests already being used, and more being established, it seems logical to put this growing technology to use. Some agree that it is a person’s right to know and understand his or her genetic makeup. However, others argue that, despite the benefits of genetic testing, caution should be used to carefully inspect the risks associated with this new technology.
The Human Genome Project introduces significant scientific findings to the world, but raises a lot of controversies. Many of these controversies concern the application of this new scientific finding and its ethicality. Genetic information from a project, once aimed towards mapping the human genome in hope for curing diseases, are now being used in businesses. It shouldn’t be permissible for employers to require that all employees, as well as potential employees, be screened for genetic vulnerabilities and to use the results of such screening when they make hiring, retention, and job assignment decisions. These genetic vulnerabilities may include diseases, unsuitable personality traits and other traits the company deems undesirable. Employees shouldn’t be judged by their genes, because the results do not adequately speak for what the employees will do in life, the employee’s position in the society, and the employee’s financial standing. Genetic testing should be an option for the employees to decide on job assignment rather than influence the hiring decisions of employers. Genetic testing only shows genetic potential, not potential growth. Conducting genetic testings on employees infringes on their privacy and encourage more social gaps with genetic classes.
Finally, although there are many obvious benefits to the use of genetic screening, after all it would potentially save companies millions in training fees, some things are definitely better left to chance. If we start meddling with our own fate too much, we lose the very things that make us human, our imperfections, and that is who we are, and we can't sacrifice
The benefits of genetic science for society is for employers who want to know if their employers are in excellent working condition and if the worker will cause them more money when obtaining health insurance. If an employer hires someone that that is healthy then the cost of health insurance does not rise and the employee will not have to downgrade their health insurance plan so that they can accommodate the employee that is not healthy. The limitations of genetic science for society are the possibility of genetic testing causing safety issues at work, the development of a genetic low class, the breach of privilege and confidentiality, and the utilization of genetic bias to excuse different methods of discrimination (Krumm, 2002).
There are two main ways genetic testing places a constraint on a child’s right to an open future. The first of these is that the revelation of a child’s disease status can change his life narrative and the way parents and others treat him, and substantially alter his or her life’s trajectory (Davis _____). Parents may feel guilty or shelter their not-yet-sick
In Improvements in Prenatal Genetic Testing Raise Ethnic Issues, R. J. Crayton produced an article about prenatal testing and whether or not parents should be allowed to have these tests done. First the situation of a high risk baby who will have a disability or defect after birth, so the parents decide to abort the child is being viewed as an inequality to the disabled community. Secondly, certain adoptions are put on hold since the biological parents chose to not carry the unborn child through the entire pregnancy, however, the surrogate mother wants to carry the child through the entire term. Lastly, research shows that the results can be a false positive, so unintentionally the parents decide not to keep the unknown, but healthy baby.
The inclusion of genetic testing into Electronic Health Records impacts the overall healthcare of patient’s because it informs the physicians and other medical professionals the selection of effective treatment or preventive action. A manager’s responsibilities are to implement policies to protect the confidentiality, privacy, and security of genetic tests results and information of patient’s. Policies contributing to potential discrimination acts are also advised because genetic/genomic testing reveals a patient’s physical characteristics.
Genetic testing, can affect a person’s life in many ways. Genetic testing is a type of medical testing that identifies changes that occur in chromosomes, proteins, and genes. These changes that occur can be associated, and often are associated with inherited
Genetic discrimination is judgement based on one’s genetic characteristics or chromosomes. In 2008, the “Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act” (GINA) was passed, this act would prohibit discrimination based on genetics; moreover, GINA would prevent employers and health insurance providers from increasing health insurance rates based on one’s genetic disposition, which I will discuss further. In this paper, I will discuss the key purpose of GINA, summarize the five congressional findings that impelled the formation of GINA.
The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) is an act of Congress that give individuals federal protection against genetic discrimination concerning insurance and employment; the federal law was enacted on the 21st of May 2008 (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d.). GINA forbids group health organizations including health plans and insurers from denying insurance to a person or charging them a higher fee grounded on their genetic information that may indicate their susceptibility to developing a certain disease in the future. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) equally prohibits employers from conducting job allocations, hiring, firing as well as promotion decisions based on their individuals ‘genetic information. GINA includes revisions to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
As the number and availability of various genetic tests have grown, so too has a fear among Americans that their genetic information may be used for purposes other than curing or preventing diseases. This paper looks at the law Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act passed in 2008 and how it influences the workplace and the health insurance practices.
<br>4. The rights of knowing someone's own health status and keeping that information private to oneself should be provided to all members of a society. Only the individual should have full access to information about his own genetic constitution and others should be prevented by legal regulations. As we have said above, the results of genetic tests can sometimes be detrimental to the individual. If a person does not want to know the information, its nobody's business nor right to declare it. This includes even not explaining favorable test results without the individual's request.
only lead to discrimination with insurance coverage but also with employers. Once the genetic information is part of the individual’s medical record, it may then be accessed by others. Cases of employers having used genetic information as part of the selection process have been found in Australia. Genetic discrimination has even been detected in the armed forces where a young man was asked to provide documentation that showed he was not predisposed to Marfan syndrome, of which he had a family history. Genetic discrimination is probably the biggest concern for individuals when it comes to the cause and effects of genetic testing upon society. Some of this concern roots from the extreme examples of world leaders and prevalent scientists in the
There are many questions that would arise, for example, who would have the rights to the genetic information? There are no uniform standards for genetic testing from state to state. Nor are there strict policies protecting the vulnerable. The current standard is GENA, Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, but it is severely lacking. While GENA protects against employers and health insurance companies requesting genetic test results, it does not cover mortgage lending, housing or schools, life or disability insurance. (U.S Department of Human Services). Before considering mandating genetic testing there should be clear and concise policies in place.
The fear of genetic discrimination is a phobia gripping many people around the world. People find themselves asking, could my genetic information raise my health bills? Could this cause me to be rejected from a job opportunity? These anxieties are causing people to lash out at genetic research, and ultimately the human genome project. People do not want our understanding of human genomics to advance. This is because the risks of the development of the technology could inflict on them. A major risk is genetic discrimination. I believe that genetic discrimination is wrong and governments should continue to prevent it because it is an invasion of privacy, it violates equity, and it could really hurt people with genetic