There is tons of research being done right now, and research that has already been done in the past, which has contributed in exploring and learning more about Mars. NASA is attempting to advance the human race even more, and is continuing to provide for the United States. NASA is planning important missions that will advance our understanding of Mars further, and their current rover, Curiosity, is greatly contributing to exploration of the planet.
In overcoming the challenges along the way of the mission from launching to impact to egress, it has allowed scientists and organisations such as NASA to gather more information about the nature of the Mars, from the climate to the geology of the planet. The outcome and findings of this mission has been a success and influential in the way we explore other planets to find the possibility of past and/or present life on that planet. The rovers had discovered fluid and other deposits on the surface of the planet, which may indicate that life can survive on this planet. The uncovering of these physical environments has shaped the method and processes undertaken on other missions in order to succeed and deliver the necessary answers to the questions of the possibility of life
The next American thing to go up into space was the Explorer 1, a satellite used to measure the radiation in Earth's orbit. The Explorer 1 was formally known as Satellite 1958 Alpha. The program at the California Institute of Technology that was to make the Explorer 1 had taken only three months to build the satellite. The Explorer 1 was launched in January 31, 1958 from Cape Canaveral and was America's first satellite. It was sent up into space with the use of a Jupiter-C vehicle, which is "a special modification of the Redstone ballistic missile" (Explorer-I and Jupiter-C). The Jupiter-C vehicle was, under the management of Dr. Wernher Von Braun, a German scientist. Dr. Wernher Von Braun was part of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, also known as ABMA. Once the satellite was up in orbit, it started its tests on how much radiation was in Earth's orbit. The scientist who was in charge of this experiment was Dr. James Van Allen. The Explorer had found that the level radiation was very low which went against Dr. Van Allen's prediction. Dr. Van Allen then made another prediction that the equipment that was used on the satellite was corrupted by a powerful belt of radiation. A couple months later when the second satellite went up
Each spacecraft was composed of two main parts: an orbiter designed to photograph the surface of Mars from orbit, and a lander designed to study the planet from the surface. The orbiters also served as communication relays for the landers once they touched down. It was highly successful and formed most of the body of knowledge about Mars through the late 199os and early 2ooos.
Shepard Jr. is the first American man to be launched into space. He was in the Mercury space capsule in a 15 minute suborbital mission (meaning it reaches the atmosphere and falls back on Earth). John H. Glenn Jr. became the first American to orbit Earth on February 20, 1962. After Project Mercury, Project Gemini started. Gemini 4's, Edward H. White Jr. conducted the first spacewalk (when an astronaut get’s out the space vehicle). Project Apollo began to be NASA’S priority in May 25, 1951. President John F. Kennedy announced the plan of launching a man in space to land on the Moon. He used this as a tool to subtly announce the US’s superiority of the Cold War enemies. It took 11 years to carry out. It took $25.4 billion dollars to achieve. This withstood challenges including lives of Roger B. Chaffee, Virgil "Gus" Grissom, and Edward H. White Jr. Jr. after a fire that took place in the Apollo capsule (January 27, 1967). October 1968 they launched different Apollo missions such as Apollo 7 (orbit earth) and Apollo 8 (orbit moon). July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong steps foot on the Moon after Apollo 11 landed with Edwin E. Buzz Aldrin Jr. Michael Collins remained in the capsule. Apollo 13 almost launched however the oxygen tank exploded. Harrison H. Jack Schmitt was a geologist that was chosen to become an astronaut. NASA and the Soviet Union allied to make the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). It served testing purposes and the crew launched separately,
Seven years later on July 20th 1969 a US rocket landed 238,900 miles from Earth, containing the first men to ever set foot on moon. The space race lasted over ten years and resulted in many scientific achievements for both
In 1961, the United States of America was embroiled in the Cold War with the Soviet Union. This confrontation was taking place not only on land, sea and air, but in space as well. On May 25th, 1961 recently elected US President John F. Kennedy addressed a joint session of Congress, during which he outlined his now famous Man on the Moon challenge. It was through this ambitious dream that the creation of the National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) came about, which President Kennedy challenged to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. Although he didn't live to see the achievement of his dreams, the United States successfully landed Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin on the moon on July 20, 1969 and
This federal agency was “responsible for the aerospace research and the civilian space program.”2 The space race heats up, as the soviet unions become the first to put a man in space, “ Yuri Gagarin became the first man to enter earths orbit, in a single- pilot spacecraft called Vostok I,”2 however, America is not far behind; a month later Alan Shepard became the first American in space. Because of back and fourth success, US president John F. Kennedy announces “ the inauguration of the Apollo program, which pledged to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade.”2 After years of experiment, test flight, and training “ the Apollo 11 spacecraft was launched into space on July 26, 1969;” 3 in the spacecraft included astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. Four days later “The Eagle” landed on the moon; Neil Armstrong stepped outside and became the first man to walk on the moon. The United States had taken a huge lead in the space race with the Apollo programs, and the relations between the Soviet Union began to thaw.
NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, was formed in 1958 shortly after the Russia launched of Sputnik and the R-7 ICMB Rocket. The administration was formed to research and
The Space Race began when the Soviet Union created Sputnik I, an artificial satellite. On October 4th of 1975, Sputnik I was launched into space by an ICBM, an intercontinental ballistic missile, and became the first ever satellite to enter space. The Soviets wasted little time though, and on November 3rd of the same year, they sent the first animal, a dog by the name of Laika, into space (1 ). However, it wasn’t until 1958 that the United States responded. Former president Dwight D. Eisenhower sent out troops to find former Nazi, Wernher Von Braun and his team of aerospace engineers (2). Von Braun and his team were quick to get to work, and attempted to send the Vanguard rocket into space in December of 1957, but to no avail, it failed and it wasn’t until January 31st of 1958 that the U.S. launched the Explorer and finally had a satellite in
The Mars observer “was based on a commercial Earth-orbiting communications satellite that had been converted into an orbiter for Mars. The payload of science instruments was designed to study the geology, geophysics and climate of Mars” (Greicius). The Mars observer was unsuccessful when NASA lost touch with the spacecraft right before it was going to enter orbit around Mars. The next spacecraft was that was launched was the Mars Pathfinder, which was launched on December 4, 1996. The Mars Pathfinder returned large amount of data when it explored an ancient flood plain in the northern hemisphere of Mars. The next spacecraft that was sent to Mars was the Mars Climate Observer Orbiter which launched on December 11, 1998. This was “designed to function as an interplanetary weather satellite and a communications relay for Mars Polar Lander. The orbiter carried two science instruments: a copy of an atmospheric sounder on the Mars Observer spacecraft lost in 1993, and a new, lightweight color imager combining wide- and medium-angle cameras” (Greicius). The Mars Climate Observer Orbiter was lost upon arrival on September 23, 1999. Engineers concluded that the spacecraft probably blew up after it entered the planet’s atmosphere too low. The next spacecraft was the Mars Polar Lander which launched on January 3, 1999. Its mission
Surveyor 1 was launched on May 30, 1966 at 2:41 Eastern Time. (NASA, n.d.) It was the first United States mission to land on the moon. (Arizona State University, 2009) It landed in Oceanus Procellarum on June 2, 1966 at 6:17 in the morning Eastern Time, and its specific location was 100 kilometers north of Flamsteed Crater. (NASA, n.d.) After landing, it transmitted photos of its surrounding back to NASA continuously until it lost power after two lunar nights on July 7, 1966. (NASA, n.d.) By the time it had reached the end, the craft had transmitted 11,240 pictures. (NASA, n.d.) According to NASA, all of its goals were accomplished, which included researching Oceanus Procellarum’s radar reflectivity and measuring surface strength and surface temperatures. (NASA, n.d.)
In 2011, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission, the rover given name as Mars Curiosity, began to inspect the Martian rocks to conclude the geologic procedures that created them and to explore more about the present and past habitability of Mars. Among its findings is the first meteorite on the surface of the red planet. In September 2014, India’s Mars Orbiter Mission reached the red planet, making it the fourth nation to successfully enter orbit around
For over 60 years now, humans have been trying anything possible to get information on our neighboring planet. Known as the “Red Planet”, Mars is the closest planet to us in our Solar System that has the chance of having human life on it. Though the chances of life on Mars are slim to none, many space organizations, including NASA, are still exploring the planet for any signs of life. Questions that many of the NASA crews ask themselves are : Is there water on Mars? What is the radiation on Mars like? And will it effect the exploration of Mars? How can we get humans to Mars safely? These questions are being asked by space agencies all around the world, however, the question that is getting more attention is : Will there ever
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched two similar twin robotic rovers, which were Spirit and Opportunity toward Mars on 10 June and 7 July 2003 (NASA 2012). Spirit and Opportunity landed in Gusev Crater on 4 January 2004 and in Meridiani Planum on 25 January 2004 respectively (NASA 2012). Opportunity is still operating and roving after 10 years on the Martian surface while final communication of Spirit to the Earth took place on 22 March 2010, which is around six years into its mission (NASA 2012). The rovers were thought to last 20 times longer as compared to its original design. As part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, the Mars Exploration Rover mission is a continuing multi-mission effort to study Mars as a