Beginning with the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, a widespread belief has proliferated that all levels of ionizing radiation are dangerous. Since 1980, radiation hormesis studies have shown there is actually a threshold of danger with high level exposures, but below that threshold low dose radiation is essentially safe and quite possibly beneficial to life. Yet, this relatively new, seemingly contradictory understanding of radiation's health effects has gone essentially unknown to the general public. In order to grasp the reasons why, we must again return to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Why Slime is better than Fidget Spinners. Fidget spinner Slime Well, fidget spinners are fun but what's the point! I mean all you do is put it in between your fingers, flick it and then it spins. But slime is a whole other level! This is why slime is better than fidget spinners.
X-rays have numerous different effects on the tissues of the body, depending on the time of exposure and energy of the X-ray photons. Best contrast between different tissues is when the photon energy is about 30 keV, for diagnostic purposes. Resulting in the photoelectric effect dominating at this energy. The tissues absorb X-rays and electrons are released. The X-ray absorption depends on the number of protons in the nuclei of the atoms encountered. A high number will attenuate the beam, producing a strong x-ray shadow, enabling for a high quality image of
Steps of Radiation Treatment: Consult 1.5 hours Nurses gather information before this appointment Nurse interviews patient Head-to-toe assessment Physician discusses treatment with patient This note is very important, because radiation is a very dangerous thing and you have to make sure you know the steps and for what you’re doing. Never take a risk.
Intro: A half life lab was conducted by rolling pennies in a cup, and then setting aside those which were heads down. This process represents a half-life of the atom, or the time required for half of a substance sample to decay. The purpose of performing this lab was to simulate the transformation of a radioisotope over time, and to graph the data in a way that relates it to radioactive decay and half-lives. The presumed result of this experiment was that a little less than half the pennies would be face down due to some inconsistencies when shaking and pouring the pennies out of the cup.
6 Megavoltage (MV) photons treat many superficial tumors. More importantly, they often require a bolus to bring the depth of maximum dose closer to the skin surface. Also, a bolus compensates for uneven skin surfaces or irregular contours on the patient’s surface. The depth of maximum equilibrium describes the depth in which the maximum dose of the formulated radiation deposited into the skin (Washington & Leaver, 2010). Bolus material should be flexible, pliable, and tissue-equivalent. There is no study that compares green Play-Doh, orange Play-Doh, water and uncooked rice to Superflab for providing maximum dose buildup, Dmax.
Beta radiation is an electron with the charge of -1. Its atomic number is -1 and atomic mass is 0. It is more penetrating than alpha radiation plus, has a less ionising power than alpha. It absorbed by thin aluminium sheet and used to control the thickness of different material such as thickness of the paper, plastic and aluminium. They use a detector to check if there is more or less particle being released or absorb. If the material is thicker then it need to the material will start to absorb the particle however if the material is too thin more beta particle will start to pass through, that’s how they finds out the thickness of the material. It is not very dangerous if it goes into our body because it usually get through the body, however it is very dangerous if it outside the body because it can penetrate the skin and cause damage to human cells. It is deflected by electrical and magnetic field because it has negative charge as I said positive and negative attract to each other.
Every isotope that is created through this accelerator is different and unique. Each particle is exposed to a different amount of magnetic field and for how much time. The different amounts of radiation help to solve different medical conditions as well as produce different kinds of solutions for the diagnosis that an individual might
In radiation therapy, d-max is a very important factor when a patient’s treatment is being planned. According to Washington and Leaver (2010), the d-max is defined as the depth at which the radiation beam is at its maximum dose. Different energies produce a different d-max, and to properly treat the tumor, dosimetrists and radiation oncologists must be aware of each depth of maximum dose. When a doctor’s radiation therapy prescription calls for more superficial treatments, it can be hard to find an appropriate energy due to the fact that the energy can max out too deep within the patient. The use of bolus will raise the d-max, or bring the d-max closer to the surface. Bolus will attenuate some of the radiation and in turn
Medalia (2011) concludes that ionizing radiation, in other words radiation separate from harmless radio waves and light, has the ability to knock electrons out of atoms, causing a condition that produces an electrically charged atom that can damage human cells. Only a very small amount is needed to produce biological change. Symptoms include cancer, genetic mutations, sickness, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and at high doses, death within hours (Medalia 2011).
I agree with you that doses are very small. I see your point of caring for the patient and not necessarily use a lead shield. However, remember the rules of personal protection: Time, Dose and Distance. If you have a procedure that might take you an hour and you will spend it with a patient, you will be exposed to a higher dose of radiation. I would think that in this particular example, we should use a lead shield, because we want to minimize/ decrease our annual dose of radiation exposure. If we will neglect all the safety rules, we might be in trouble. You always wear your seat belt while driving, right? It will increase your chance of survival during a car accident. Some people neglect to do that, like my husband, and his risk of being
X-Ray and Gamma radiation are the heart of this therapy. Either produced through the beta decay of Cobalt-60 or a linear accelerator, external beam radiation delivers a beam of high-energy x-rays to a patient’s tumor site in order to destroy the cancer cells. In most cases, patients receive therapy in daily treatment sessions over the course of several weeks. Many types of external-beam radiation therapy are delivered using a linear accelerator. The Linac uses direct current or radio frequency voltages accelerating electrons through then length of a waveguide, a hollow tube vacuum chamber, to a velocity near the speed of light. When the electron reaches the end of the acceleration tube, it smashes into a metal target, usually tungsten or aluminum. This collision creates the high-energy radiation used to treat cancer. Depending on the metal target used for the final collision, different radiation is generated for specific treatments3.
Results The solid water was the control variable in the experiment and the investigators compared values that resulted from irradiation of the solid water with each bolus’ average Dmax. Table 1 recorded the ratios that resulted from these values. ANOVA calculations from the values shown in Table 1 resulted in an F value of 762.65 and a P value of less than 0.0001. The investigator compared the results between each individual group with a Tukey HSD test. When compared to one another, each sample resulted in a P value less than 0.01.
Both of these effects result in decreasing energy deposition from the skin to the back of the patient. In other words, much of the dose is deposited near the skin. This is why the deterministic effects that are a large worry for doctors relate to skin injuries. Larger patients, who require higher doses to penetrate through the larger body parts, are at higher risk of skin injuries. Therefore, it is very important to understand the intensity of X-rays to avoid serious consequences.
Since the technologies being used only bounce waves of the body surface, this leaves then skin highly exposed to concentrated amounts of radiation. Health side effect studies of full body scanners have been labeled classified and inaccessible to the general public. Four professors from the University of California- San Francisco, whom are well respected cancer, X-ray crystallographers and imaging experts stated in a letter to the Obama administration that, “The low-energy rays do a “Compton scatter” off tissue layers just under the skin, possibly exposing some vital areas and leaving the tissues at risk of mutation. When an X-ray Compton scatters, it doesn’t shift an electron to a higher energy level; instead, it hits the electron hard enough to dislodge it from its atom.” The authors note that this process is “likely breaking bonds,” which could cause mutations in cells and raise the risk of cancer (Johnston). Furthermore, the UCSF researchers write in their letter, “older passengers are more susceptible to mutagenic effects of X-rays, and “the risk of