Supplementary Tutoring : Private Tutoring And Shadow Education

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2. Literature Review 2.1 Supplementary tutoring worldwide Supplementary tutoring, sometimes also called private tutoring or shadow education is a kind of educational enterprise which offers paid tutoring service for the schooling pupils. The pupils usually attend ST at weekends to have lessons of school academic subjects from the tutors (Bray & Kwok, 2003). To be more specifically, these schools have the following several characteristics: firstly, students studying there with the aims to improve their academic performances on their school subjects. Secondly, tutors in the ST get financial paid directly from the pupils’ tuition fees and finally, these schools just exists as a supplementary institution other than the mainstream school, as the students only attend them on weekends or other spare times without occupying the regular time in mainstream schools. The forms of supplementary tutoring are various. For instance, some students may receive so called “VIP” tutoring, which takes in one to one basis, and others may take lessons in small groups or large groups. Most of the tutors give lessons face to face, either in the homes of tutors’ or students’, or even in tutoring class. There are very small percentages of the ST given by the internet, telephone or mail. The students take lessons of their school academic subjects for one or more, and attending ST at their spare time, typically the weekends or evening time after school for several hours a week. But for the important
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