The landmark Supreme Court cases of Dred Scott v. Sandford, Plessy v. Ferguson, and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas have had a tremendous effect on the struggle for equal rights in America. These marker cases have set the precedent for cases dealing with the issue of civil equality for the last 150 years.
In June 1892 Homer A. Plessy bought a first-class ticket on the East Louisiana Railroad and sat in the car designated for whites only. Plessy was of mixed African and European ancestry, and he looked white. Because the Citizens Committee wanted to challenge the segregation law in court, it alerted railroad officials that Plessy would be sitting in the whites only car, even though he was partly of African descent. Plessy was arrested and brought to court for arraignment before Judge John H. Ferguson of the U.S. District Court in Louisiana. Plessy then attempted to halt the trial by suing Ferguson on the grounds that the segregation law was unconstitutional.
Segregation had been something the United States had struggled with for years. During the 1890’s segregation started to become more common and white people felt superior to other races, especially African Americans. White people believed, black people did not deserve the rights and respect that they had. Homer Plessy, the so called wrongdoer in the Plessy vs Ferguson case, was seven-eighths white and one-eighths black, and he had an appearance of a white man. On June 7, 1892, he purchased a railroad ticket from New Orleans to Covington La, and sat in an empty seat in a whites only car. Homer told the conductor he was black, and when asked to leave and move on to the appropriate car, he refused. He was an American citizen who had bought a first-class ticket and deserved to sit on that train. When the conductor called the police, Homer Plessy was arrested and later in court his case challenged the system and had a large impact on the African American community.The Plessy vs Ferguson trial affected humanity in both a positive and a negative way, because of the small negative short term cultural effects, such as disrespect towards African Americans, and the long term positive effects that lead to the equality between black and white people.
The Supreme Court was important in both suppressing and aiding the Civil Rights Movement. However, decisions taken by the President, the continued white opposition and improvements in media communications also had an effect. Although all were important, the Civil Rights movement alone would have reached the same end without the help of the Supreme Court, and the devotion of its many members and leaders is the major factor in advancing Civil Rights.
Like Martin Luther King Jr said, “We may have all come on different ships, but we’re in the same boat now". In the 1800's and mid 1900's there were several cases where it lacked equality to the blacks. The Civil Rights movement helped people understand that nobody is
There was no clarification on what race would be considered white or what would be considered black. During this incident, “Homer Plessy, who was seven-eighths white and one-eighth African American, purchased a rail ticket for travel within Louisiana and took a seat in a car reserved for white passengers. (The state Supreme Court had ruled earlier that the law could not be applied to interstate travel.) After refusing to move to a car for African Americans, he was arrested and charged with violating the Separate Car Act.”(Duignan 2017). Judge Ferguson ruled that the separation was fair and did not violate the fourteenth amendment. The state Supreme Court also backed up this decision. The case was brought to the Supreme Court and "The law was challenged in the Supreme Court on grounds that it conflicted with the 13th and 14th Amendments. By a 7-1 vote, the Court said that a state law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between the two races did not conflict with the 13th Amendment forbidding involuntary servitude, nor did it tend to reestablish such a condition." (History.com Staff 2009). This decision set the key precedent of Separate but Equal in the United States. Racial segregation kept growing.
The Plessy V. Ferguson and Brown V. Board of Education are two cases that changed the way that we live today in a quite dramatic way. The Plessy V. Ferguson was a case that promoted segregation. The majority voted for segregation and the minorities opposed the idea and the key precedent that was established after this case was that the U.S. Supreme Court didn't base their trial off of the constitution and instead based their trial upon the statement 'separate but equal'. The Brown V. Board of Education case was a case that completely opposed the idea of 'separate but equal' because the whole case revolved around the fact that a mother wanted her children to go to a school that was easier to get to however it was a school that was only for white children so the mother decided to take the case to court and the majority voted on letting the African American students attend white schools and the minorities voted otherwise. The key precedent that was established after this case was that segregation in schools violates the 14th amendment and it should not be permitted by the U.S. Supreme Court. These two cases were important for the transformation for the America we have today, and they influenced America's thought process and actions significantly.
(“Landmark Cases”) On June 7, 1892, Homer Plessy, a thirty year-old shoemaker bought a first class ticket preparing to travel from New Orleans to Covington, Louisiana. Homer Plessy was something called a “Creole of Color” a phrase used to describe black people in New Orleans that trace their ancestry to the French, the Spanish and the Caribbean settlers. He had a very light colored skin tone and was only one eighth black. Even so, he was required by law to sit in the black section of the train. He boarded the train and sat in the “white” car. (Wormser) The conductor questioned him, and after refusing to move he was arrested and charged with not following state law. He went first to the Criminal District Court for the Parish of Orleans, and Tourgee, the hired lawyer, brought his case that the “separate but equal” rules were unconstitutional. Judge John H. Ferguson ruled against him, but that did not stop Homer Plessy. Instead, he applied to the State Supreme Court for the ability to go on to the United States Supreme Court. (Wormser)
In 1892 the Supreme Court ruled 7-1 against Homer Plessy, a one-eighth black man who fought to sit in a train car reserved for white people in Louisiana 1. Since he was not allowed to ride in said cars, his 14th amendment right against discrimination of any American citizen was violated 1. The Supreme Court rejected Plessy's argument that Louisiana law conflicted with the thirteenth amendment and the fourteenth amendment 1. The justices claimed however, that separation of races does not make someone feel
Ten years prior we had Brown v. The Board of Education, which a few of the same Justices serving on Katzenbach v. McClung were on, that stated that “separate educational facilities is inherently unequal”. Then, with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 we saw the outlawing of segregation and discrimination in public places. This was put to the test by two small southern businesses that claimed Congress had no right to interfere with their local establishments, but the Supreme Court did right by upholding the constitution, and it seemed to be a no brainer as seen by the unanimous decision by the court. It was tense time and shameful part of our history, but without decisions made by these men we might not be where we are today. Racism and discrimination still exist all over the globe to this day. We have come a long way though, and if it wasn’t for people continuing to do the right thing whether they are a majority or minority then we wouldn’t have the freedoms that we have today. The Supreme Court got it right with this decision, not just by upholding the Constitution, but for our Country and Humanity in
It's truly amazing how different daily lives could be with out the American governments judicial system. During the 1846-1950's time period everything was segregated and split by the mere color of your skin. No matter wet here you are African American, Hispanic, White, or any other color you should be treated with the same amount of respect as anyone else.The Supreme Court has made many decisions over the years that have effected everyday lives: "Dred Scott v. Sanford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. The board of education.
He was seven-eighths white and one-eighth black and had the appearance of a white man. Nevertheless, he was arrested and convicted of violating the 1890 law. He filed a petition against the judge and the Plessy v. Ferguson started. The Supreme Court considered the constitutionality of a Louisiana law passed in 1890 "providing for separate railway carriages for the white and colored races." The law, which required that all passenger railways provide separate cars for blacks and whites, stated that the cars be equal in facilities and banned whites from sitting in black cars and blacks in white cars and reserving the right to penalize passengers or railway employees for violating its terms. The Court expressly rejected Plessy's argument that the law stigmatized blacks "with a badge of inferiority," pointing out that both blacks and whites were given equal facilities under the law and were equally punished for violating the law. "We consider the underlying fallacy of (Plessy's) argument" contended the Court, "to consist in the assumption that the enforced separation of the two races stamps the colored race with a badge of inferiority. If this is so, it is not by reason of anything found in the act, but solely because the
Supreme Court cases like Loving v. Virginia (1967), Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971), and Bakke v. University of California (1978) made the government realize civil rights were a serious problem. The governments ignorance toward this issue caused people to be harassed, segregated, and even put in prison. After all, everybody is equal and should be treated with the same
In 1890, the Supreme Court passed a Louisiana law that stated that all passenger railways provided separated cars for blacks and whites. They separated whites and blacks and punish passengers or employees for violating this law. On June 7, 1892 Homer Plessy took a vacant seat in a white only car on his trip between New Orleans and Los Angeles. Plessy was arrested because he was mixed, but was preferred as black and was put to trial for violating a law that was passed by the Supreme Court in 1890. Plessy felt that the Supreme Court was treating blacks unequal, so he filed an authority against the judge, Hon John H. Ferguson.
Court Cases During The Civil Rights Movement People who fought to end segregation will never be forgotten. Segregation was the act of separating the “whites”and “blacks,” court cases such as Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of education spoke against segregation. Plessy v. Ferguson was about a man named Homer Plessy who was born on the 17th of March in 1862. Brown v. Board of education was about a little girl named Linda Brown. The two court cases were both about people speaking against segregation. The court case Plessy v. Ferguson helped with the decision for the Brown v. Board of education.