Surfactant Replacement in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Type

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Surfactant Replacement in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Type The innovation of surfactant replacement therapy in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome has proven to increase the survival and minimize the complications of the premature neonate. Replacing surfactant has lessened time on ventilators, and allowing the neonate and parents an opportunity to grow together earlier outside of intensive care. This paper will discuss the etiology of respiratory distress syndrome type I, the treatment options and nursing care of the neonate during surfactant replacement. Respiratory distress syndrome type I is a decrease production of surfactant, a noncelluar chemical produced in the type II alveolar in the lungs…show more content…
These include maternal hypertension, gestational diabetes excluding classes D, F, and R, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm labor, and drug abuse. The neonate high risk factors are birth prior to 32 weeks, weighing less then 1300 grams and laboratory data suggesting poor lung maturity discussed later. (Bower, Barnhart, betiti, Hendon, Masi-lynch, & Wilson, 825) The highest risk factor for RDS type I is an insulin dependent diabetic mother, because boluses of insulin injections severely decrease the fetus production of surfactant. (Porth, 1306)) Chronic hypoxic events during pregnancy associated with mild to moderate maternal hypertension have shown however to sometime accelerate fetal lung maturity and surfactant production leading to a decrease in neonatal respiratory complications. (Kim, Vohr, & Oh, 39) This due to cortical steroid secretion that stimulate an increased production of surfactant in response to the stresses of hypoxic events. (Porth, 1306) The symptoms of oncoming RDS may at first not be present in a fetus greater then 28 weeks since they have produced enough surfactant to thrive outside of uterine life for a short time. However the high initial pressure to breathe the first breath remains constant with each subsequent breath causing extreme effort for
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