Surgical Implant Essay

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Long-term effects: surgical implants Chronic exposure to medically implanted metals is of growing interest to medical providers. Gallo, Kaminek, Ticha, Rihakova and Ditmar (2002) compiled a review on particle disease. This is complication found in hip replacement patients that is characterized by aseptic loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis. The burden of wear on the weight bearing surfaces of the implant produces particles. These particles are only one of several factors that contribute to the complex osteolytic process. Osteoblasts are key in the process of bone formation. Metal particles can inhibit osteoblast production and function. Oldenburg, Wegner and Baur (2009) described the case of a 55 year old man with a metal-on-ceramic hip…show more content…
Since then, X-rays have remained the primary technique used to locate embedded material in the body (Vogel & Dootz, 2007). However, X-rays do not provide information as to the biological condition of the tissue surrounding the embedded fragment (Fernandes et al., 2007; Helito et al., 2014). Extensive use of diagnostic X-rays can also lead to an increased risk of cancer later in life. Improvement in technology has decreased dose from plain film radiographs in comparison with decades past. This risk, albeit usually small, must be weighed against the benefit obtained from the information the X-rays…show more content…
This results in a virtual three-dimensional image of the scanned area. Metal results in artifacts on CT scans which may limit assessment of adjacent structures. Techniques for limiting this artifact exist (Bal & Spies, 2006; Barret & Keat, 2004; Watzke & Kalender, 2004; Fraga-Manteiga et al., 2014; Wang et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2007). Since this technique uses X-rays to obtain the required information for analysis, the same concerns over radiation exposure exist for this procedure as for traditional radiographs. Again, the risk of radiation exposure must be weighed against the potential benefit CT provides. CT has been extensively used to evaluate patients with embedded metal fragments (Gracias et al., 2001; Sofka, 2007; Adibi et al., 2014). However, metal-induced effects to the surrounding tissues are often difficult to determine with
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