Surrealism, And A New Mode Of Pure Expression

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What is surrealism? Surrealism is a “revolution,” "pure psychic automatism," “an attack of conscience,” and a “new mode of pure expression” according to its founder André Breton. In his highly controversial texts, “Manifestoes of Surrealism,” Breton exposes us to this new term he coined along with his colleague Philippe Soupault in homage to Guillaume Apollinaire, someone whom they believed had followed the discipline, and he explains the phenomenon in detail so that more can become aware and utilize the technique. Drawing heavy influences from Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx, Breton reveals to us the limitless opportunities of surrealism and how it frees us from everyday reality, similar to how the exoteric texts challenged us to question our beliefs. I The first “Manifesto of Surrealism” was published in 1924 succeeding dadaism, an art movement of the European avant-garde often regarded as the movement that brought forth postmodern art. At the time of its publication, Europe was still reeling from World War I and art was very much political. Breton and other surrealists wanted to break free from the conventional art if the times and express the imagination as revealed in dreams. Thus, the “Manifesto of Surrealism” came about in which Breton discussed the importance of merging dream and reality. In Breton’s view, one can learn to ascend to perception of a higher reality (the surreal), or more reality, if one can manage to liberate one’s psyche from traditional education, the

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