Strategies were developed in order to improve the effects of road transport and to help fight the environmental symptoms caused by these effects. The strategies aimed at improving the manufacturing process of motor vehicles, reducing the emissions of road transport, minimizing the fuel consumption of drivers and reducing the demand for travel. They consisted of:
Site drainage management is a very important part of the design of footing system. It is because the site drainage could influence the success of the footing system, the maintenance of the site drainage influencing the economic life of the building and the site drainage plan is required to be documented (AS2870, 2011). In the AS2870, there is a detailed drainage requirement helping owner-builders to know how to manage drainage and the several factors influencing the site drainage.
As you can see, road salt is effective but has its negative points. Not only can it harm aquatic life and bodies of water, but also roads, bridges, soil and vegetation. The questions here are, are the benefits of using 5 million tonnes a year of salt worth all of the negative aspects it brings.
Rain normally drains into the soil where it is naturally filtered as it works its way into the groundwater supply. Roads, driveways, and parking lots disrupt this process by covering the surface of the soil. Gravel is ideal for allowing rainwater to soak into the ground, but it is not a good surface for a commercial parking lot. Porous asphalt is the best solution since it has an attractive appearance, allows for water drainage, and has a surface that can be marked with parking spaces.
Through an online website by the name of GIZMODO, I learned the reason why American roads are often riddled with potholes. When freshly paved roads are not perfectly sealed, there is an increased chance that water in one form or another will make its way beneath the asphalt; there it will stay, existing in a small gap between the pavement and the road’s base. Then, it’s only a matter of time before the driving of big trucks over the water pockets turn the spots into actual potholes.
Richardson, Glaeser places certain focus on the importance of sanitation and the provision of clean water as fundamental components in reducing disease in cities. While this issue is highly relevant to the wellbeing of citizens in urban concentrations, Glaeser seems less concerned with it as most present-day cities have overcome these issues through provision of sufficient infrastructure. Of greater interest to the economically fixated Glaeser is the proposal and implementation of urban planning reforms aiming to reduce traffic congestion in metropolitan areas. He points out that congestion encumbers productivity in cities, and is adamant in his view that every driver should be charged for the external cost that their use of the road deposits on other drivers. From an economic perspective, it makes great sense to charge people for their bearing on congested roads to make up for lost time and productivity. Though the author fails to consider other solutions to the congestion problem, such as increasing public transport opportunities and investing in pedestrian and bicycle facilities, his favoured solution would still work well as part of a larger scheme to reduce traffic
To make winter roads more acceptable and easy to travel on, the municipal government of a city must apply either a chemical de-icer to melt ice or spread sand to increase traction. In many parts of the world there are brutal snowstorms and blizzards that establish road travel issues into existence. These nasty storms and blizzards would have been abominable without the use of chemical de-icers or sand. Statistically, providing salt or sand on roads covering an entire city can reduce the amount of accidents by 85% during and after a winter blizzard. Many chemicals and sand are very cost-effective, yet they play a key role on the roads and also may have negative environment impacts which a city must take into account. Environment protection is
Wetland Construction for Water Treatment The environmental issue this paper will address is water pollution in our rivers and other waterways. More specifically the pollution that occurs from storm runoff. There are 772 combined sewer systems in the United States. Combined sewer systems are sewers that transport storm water and industrial/municipal waste water to publicly owned treatment plants through the same pipe. During rainy weather, the combined runoff and sewage flows can exceed the limits of
For depressed curb inlets at a cross-slope of 2%, the experimental results seem to be greater than the empirical results from both theoretical methods except for curb inlet A. Curb inlets B and D have longer upstream transitional lengths than A which means that they intercept more flows than A. It was observed that more flow is intercepted at a lower road cross-sectional slope
It is compulsory to build drains which discharge into the storm water drainage system required by the council’s point of discharge area. Drainage of this type, i.e. surface water, is not permitted to flow into sewerage
I feel that the contactors and engineers who were given the responsibility to plan and establish the drainage system in the City did not professionally carry out their work as they were expected. The drainage channels and pipes should also be frequently maintained to ensure that they don’t block. More dams in the city that would accommodate excess water when it rains should also be constructed. In addition, the water sensitive urban design should also be deployed to reduce the run-off in the city and allow filtration into the ground water. If all these measures are taken into place, then I strongly believe that the residents of this city will lead a comfortable life free of floods and water-borne diseases. The economic activities in the town are also expected to increase significantly if the drainage system is rectified and modified together with other conditions that accelerated incidence of floods in the
Regardless of specific elements or type of design, there are always some practical considerations that we must keep in mind as well. Drainage is of paramount importance in gardening because every structure blocks water from being sheet drained to street. Any wall, fence, or garage is going to create a dam effect and will require us to devise some method of rapid water runoff.
Sustainability is of vital importance because anything we decide to do as a society will definitely have positively or negatively impact on the natural environment. When unsustainable action continues, they can harm the human existence by creating greenhouse gases that causes climate change, depleting natural resources that are needed for future energy and infrastructure, and polluting the air, soil, and water on which humans depends on for existence. We must change the way we procure materials, construct infrastructure and conduct our daily activates in other for these impacts to reduce (FHWA 2013). The benefits of sustainability in road maintenance as recognized by Kirkup and Allen (2015) are listed
Storm sewers drain excess rain and groundwater from manmade infrastructure like roads and parking lots. Sometimes the water may be processed to remove stuff like car oil, but for the most part, they get less treatment than sanitary sewers or sometimes none at all.