Syllabus Designing - Review of Literature

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE An essential step in any research project is the literature review. The function of the literature review is to provide background information on the research question, and to identify what others have said and/or discovered about the question. It may well be that in the course of carrying out the literature review, you come across a study which answers the very question you are proposing to investigate. The literature review, if carried out systematically, will acquaint the researcher with previous work in the field, and it should also alert you to problems and potential pitfalls in the chosen area. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is often underestimated because of teachers' attitudes which are often…show more content…
Moreover, Robinson (1991) argues that the language produced as a feature of ESP should be good enough for the job and not be necessarily native-speaker like, but be the communicative strategies and effectiveness of the non-native professional users of English. History of ESP According to Johns’ (1991) discussion, the ESP history in brief with respect to its development and expansion throughout the world has been influenced by the major theoretical and applied schools of linguistics and developed into four phases. The first phase (the 1960s and the early 1970s) was the structure-based phase of linguistic (i.e. lexical and grammatical) features of academic and professional registers, for example, the language of electrical engineering and the language of law (e.g. Herbert, 1965). The second phase (the late 1970s and the early 1980s) was the discourse-based phase of register analysis where the function and purpose in discourse became more rhetorical (e.g. Trimble, 1985). The third phase (the integration of the discoveries in phase 1 and phase 2) was communication-based phase of systematic analyses of the target learning situations which concentrate on Munbyian concepts of ‘notional-functional curriculum’ (Munby, 1996), namely: (a) the communicative purposes of speaker/writer; (b) the setting for language use; and (c)
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