The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior.
A mammal with hooves that have an odd number of toes on the rear feet are known as odd-toed ungulates. The middle toe on each rear hoof is usually larger than the ones next to them. Horses are members of the odd-toed ungulates which includes the horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses. They are relatively large grazing animals with
The American Quarter Horse is one of the oldest recognized breeds of horses. By the late 17th century, these horses were being raced successfully over quarter mile courses that is why they are called the American Quarter Horse. The Quarter Horse was a breed for performance and had considered thoroughbred blood as well as traits of other lines. In the early 19th century the Quarter Horses were overshadowed by thoroughbred which ran better over longer distances. But, Quarter Horses soon found a new acceptances in the western and southern United States as a stock horse.
Thoroughbreds are bred for their speed. They’re known as the “English Horse,” because they evolved in Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries. Thoroughbreds were named because of the way they were bred. They were called “thoroughbreds” because they were purebred. “The name , “Thoroughbred,” is a direct translation of the Arabic word Kehilan (“IHWT Irish Horse Welfare Trust”).” The origin of the breeding of thoroughbred back in the ancient times was found that the three main descendants weren’t very fast horses. The gene that made these horses so quick came from an anonymous mare that was raced more than 300 years ago. They think that this mare may have been part or mostly Shetland. Thoroughbreds are often described as the highest class of light horse imaginable. “The Irish Thoroughbred has won many major races throughout the world (“IHWT Irish Horse Welfare Trust”).” Thoroughbreds are usually about 16 hands tall, (1 hand is equal to 3 feet). They are long and sleek, with long legs which allows them to move quickly. Their most common colors would be brown, bay, chestnut, and black. They have a straight profile and all though they have Arabian ancestors, they do not show any of their distinct profiles. “Thoroughbreds are bred
The closest living relative to the horses of today is the Asiatic Wild Horses. These horses are better known as the przewalskii horses, which were discovered by Nicolai Mikhailovitch Przewalskii in 1879. Within 10 years of
The domestication of the horse has profoundly affected the course of civilization. Horses provided meat, milk, and enhanced transportation and warfare (Vila et al., 2001). Horse remains become increasingly common in archaeological sites of the Eurasian grassland steppe dating from about 6000 years ago, suggesting the time and place of their first domestication (Clutton-Brock 1987).
The Quarter Horse and the Thoroughbred have been in existence since the seventeenth century and are perhaps the most well-known horse breeds of the twentieth century. These spectacular horses are used to compete in sporting events and have tremendous abilities. They are prey animals that routinely weigh over one thousand pounds, have similar colors, and are made for riding. Both are routinely more than fifteen hands in height and are measured from the ground at their front legs with one hand equaling four inches. Reaching speeds in excess of forty miles per hour, they can easily jump heights of five feet. Each has won North American and world championships, earning themselves fame and their owner’s fortune for their accomplishments. Although these animals can be similar in size and appearance, there are differences in their abilities and personalities.
24 million years ago the Parahippus appeared and were found to be the link between modern and ancient horses. They were the first horses to have one big toe with two smaller toes off the side, instead of four toes of the same size. 17 million years ago the Merychippus marked a truly horse-looking horse. Even though it still had three toes, it was the first to have high-crowned cheek teeth that made it a grazing horse.
The Akhal Teke horse originally came from Central Asia, and Turkmenistan. They say that the Akhal Take is at least 3,000 years old. The horses thrived where food was scarce, and the weather fluctuated from extreme heat, to bitter cold.
Than the Hyracotherium evolved into the Mesohippus celer. Around 40 million years ago. This animal was a little bigger, and it didn’t look like a fox anymore. The back wasn’t as arched, the legs and neck were a little longer, the face and sound were longer. It had three toes but, still had a padded-foot. But, the fourth toe became smaller.
Natural selection was Darwin’s way of explaining the how’s and the whys of adaptation and speciation that concern the continuance of life. Attributes of species is not by happenstance or by chance, but by years of evolution altering the genetic composition so as to ensure the preservation of its lineage. In virtual lab number seven, specific alleles and starting percentages (independent variable) of each were manipulated in varying environments (dependent variable) to show how a species adopts certain traits that are advantageous to its survival. I predict that as the independent variable changes the species will continually search for ways to match the dependent variable that ensures not only a continued existence, but one that is more formidable. Understanding how species co-exist in the world can assist mankind in understanding the differences in cultures.
Most, however, would say that quarter horses fall closer to the middle, but really it just depends on the genetics of the horse. The average quarter horse height ranges between 14 and 16 hands. A hand is a
From the common ancestor to organisms as complex as the Bonobo, certain species have changed to the point where they cannot be seen as related to their ancestors at all. The Bonobo (Pan paniscus), the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), the domestic Dog (Canis lupus familiaris), the Rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae), Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus), Lion(Panthera leo), and American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) are all prime examples of organisms that are all related to one common ancestor.
The pottok's origins may lie as far back as 10,000 years ago. Ancient cave paintings in the area show pottok-like horses. They are thought to descend from the Magdalenian horses of 14,000 - 7,000 BC. There are now only a few hundred left and all have owners, rather than freely wandering through the mountains. Their adaptation to mountain life and dark color made them ideal for use by smugglers.
The biological species concept is defined, as species that are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups. Species of the similar classification can mate and reproduce with each other but not with distinctive species. Although there is species that look relatively the same that does not define how species interbreed with each other. For example, an alligator and a crocodile look the same but are not classified as the same species therefore they wouldn’t be able to interbreed. Even though both of these reptiles are from the same group crocodilian and coexist they still don’t interbreed. The reason why is because these two reptiles have a different genetic make-up that wont let them reproduce.