Symptoms And Injuries Of A Traumatic Brain Injury

841 WordsNov 24, 20144 Pages
Nearly two million people experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI) every year. The degree of severity from the incident may range from no underlying brain injury to severe compression of brain tissue. Irregular interior surface of skull can damage fragile tissues of brain during acceleration, deceleration, or shearing forces. Direct mechanical trauma can injure cortical tissue. Traumatic hematomas can damage subcortical structures and lead to vasospasm and ischemia. Sudden movement of skull on its vertebral axis produces injury by rotation, acceleration, deceleration, or damage to long axons interconnecting brain regions. Traumatic brain injuries are most often classified by severity, but also by mechanism of injury and location. Damage ranges from scalp trauma to cerebral contusion, with concussions somewhere in the middle, depending on severity. Physicians look for the following in a patient to assess the extent of injury: confusion, disorientation, loss of consciousness, amnesia, neurologic dysfunction, and intracranial lesion. They then determine whether the TBI is mild, moderate, or severe. Moderate TBI must present at least one of the following symptoms: loss of consciousness at least 30 minutes, but less than one day; change in consciousness and mental status longer than one day; amnesia longer than one day but less than seven; GCS in first 24 hours between 9 and 12; abnormal neuroimaging. Severe TBI: loss of consciousness > 24 hours, alteration of consciousness
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